How can I utilize user data to automatically execute a script with every restart of my Amazon EC2 instance?
Last updated: 2020-04-16
I want to use user data to execute a script every time my Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) instance is restarted. How can I do that?
By default, user data scripts and cloud-init directives run only during the first boot cycle when an EC2 instance is launched. However, you can configure your user data script and cloud-init directives with a mime multi-part file. A mime multi-part file allows your script to override how frequently user data is executed in the cloud-init package. Then, the file executes the user script. For more information on mime multi-part files, see Mime Multi Part Archive on the cloud-init website.
Warning: Before starting this procedure, review the following:
- Stopping and starting the instance erases any data on instance store volumes. Be sure that you back up any data on the instance store volume that you want to keep. For more information, see Determining the root device type of your AMI.
- Stopping and restarting the instance changes the public IP address of your instance. It's a best practice to use an Elastic IP address instead of a public IP address when routing external traffic to your instance.
1. Make sure that the latest version of cloud-init is installed and functioning properly on your EC2 instance.
3. Open the Amazon EC2 console.
5. Choose Actions, choose Instance Settings, and then choose View/Change User Data.
6. Copy your user script into the View/Change User Data box, and then choose Save.
The following example is a shell script that writes "Hello World" to a testfile.txt file in a /tmp directory.
Content-Type: multipart/mixed; boundary="//" MIME-Version: 1.0 --// Content-Type: text/cloud-config; charset="us-ascii" MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="cloud-config.txt" #cloud-config cloud_final_modules: - [scripts-user, always] --// Content-Type: text/x-shellscript; charset="us-ascii" MIME-Version: 1.0 Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit Content-Disposition: attachment; filename="userdata.txt" #!/bin/bash /bin/echo "Hello World" >> /tmp/testfile.txt --//
By default, cloud-init allows only one content type in user data at a time. However, this example shows both text/cloud-config and text/x-shellscript content-types in a mime-multi part file.
The text/cloud-config content type overrides how frequently user data is executed in the cloud-init package by setting the SCRIPTS-USER parameter to ALWAYS.
The text/x-shellscript content type provides the actual user script to be executed by the cloud-init cloud_final_modules module. In this example, there is only one line to be executed, which is /bin/echo "Hello World." >> /tmp/testfile.txt.
Note: Replace the line /bin/echo "Hello World." >> /tmp/testfile.txt with the shell script that you want to execute during the instance boot.
7. Start your EC2 instance again, and validate that your script executes correctly.