How can I map drive letters to Amazon EBS volumes in Windows using AWS CloudFormation?

Last updated: 2020-06-17

How can I map drive letters to Amazon Elastic Block Store (Amazon EBS) volumes in Windows using AWS CloudFormation?

Short description

You can use a custom script that runs during boot to map drive letters to Amazon EBS volumes in Windows with AWS CloudFormation.

Resolution

1.    Launch a Windows instance using the Amazon Machine Image (AMI) for Windows Server 2016 Base or later.

2.    (Optional) Create a D drive manually, and then put a data file in the D drive. For more information, see Making an Amazon EBS volume available for use on Windows.

3.    Use the ShutDown with the Sysprep option to create an AMI from your instance. For more information, see Configuring a Windows instance using EC2Launch, and then follow the instructions in the Running Sysprep with EC2Launch section.

4.    Create an AWS CloudFormation stack based on the following template.

Note: The template includes a script that creates Disk 2 with drive letter X and Disk 3 with drive letter S.

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{
  "AWSTemplateFormatVersion": "2010-09-09",
  "Description": "AWS CloudFormation template AV Group, Launch Config for EC2",
  "Resources": {
    "DBServer": {
      "Type": "AWS::EC2::Instance",
      "Metadata" : {
        "AWS::CloudFormation::Init" : {
          "config" : {
          "files" : {
            "c:\\cfn\\cfn-hup.conf" : {
            "content" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", [
              "[main]\n",
              "stack=", { "Ref" : "AWS::StackId" }, "\n",
              "region=", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, "\n"
              ]]}
            },
            "c:\\cfn\\hooks.d\\cfn-auto-reloader.conf" : {
            "content": { "Fn::Join" : ["", [
              "[cfn-auto-reloader-hook]\n",
              "triggers=post.update\n",
              "path=Resources.DBServer.Metadata.AWS::CloudFormation::Init\n",
              "action=cfn-init.exe -v -s ", { "Ref" : "AWS::StackId" },
                " -r DBServer",
                " --region ", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, "\n"
            ]]}
            },
            "c:\\cfn\\hooks.d\\drives.diskpart.txt" : {
              "content": { "Fn::Join" : ["", [
                "select disk 2\n",
                "attributes disk clear readonly\n",
                "clean\n",
                "online disk\n",
                "convert gpt\n",
                "create partition primary\n",
                "format quick fs=ntfs label=","\"","ORATEMP","\"","\n",
                "assign letter=X\n",
                "select disk 3\n",
                "attributes disk clear readonly\n",
                "clean\n",
                "online disk\n",
                "convert gpt\n",
                "create partition primary\n",
                "format quick fs=ntfs label=","\"","ORADATA","\"","\n",
                "assign letter=S\n",
                "select disk 1\n",
                "online disk\n"
              ]]}},
              "c:\\cfn\\hooks.d\\renamedrives.ps1" : {
                "content": { "Fn::Join" : ["", [
                  "diskpart /s c:\\cfn\\hooks.d\\drives.diskpart.txt\n"
              ]]}}
          },
          "commands" : {
            "1-rename-drives" : {
              "command" : "powershell.exe -ExecutionPolicy Bypass -NoLogo -NonInteractive -NoProfile -File c:\\cfn\\hooks.d\\renamedrives.ps1",
              "waitAfterCompletion" : "0"
            },
            "2-signal-success" : {
              "command" : { "Fn::Join" : [ "", [
                "cfn-signal.exe -e %ERRORLEVEL% \"",
                { "Fn::Base64" : { "Ref" : "WindowsServerWaitHandle" }},
                "\""]]
              }
            }
          },
          "services" : {
            "windows" : {
            "cfn-hup" : {
              "enabled" : "true",
              "ensureRunning" : "true",
              "files" : ["c:\\cfn\\cfn-hup.conf", "c:\\cfn\\hooks.d\\cfn-auto-reloader.conf"]
            }
            }
          }
          }
        }
      },
      "Properties": {
        "ImageId": "ami-01xxxxxxxxxx",
        "InstanceType": "m4.xlarge",
        "KeyName": "xxxxxxxx",
        "BlockDeviceMappings": [
          {"DeviceName": "xvdg","Ebs":{"VolumeSize":"20"}},
          {"DeviceName": "xvdm","Ebs":{"VolumeSize":"20"}}
        ],
        "Tags": [ {
          "Key": "Name",
          "Value": {"Fn::Join": ["-", ["DB",{"Ref": "AWS::StackName"}]]}
        }],
        "UserData" : { "Fn::Base64" : { "Fn::Join" : ["", [
          "<powershell>\n",
          "cfn-init.exe -v -s ", { "Ref" : "AWS::StackId" },
          " -r DBServer",
          " --region ", { "Ref" : "AWS::Region" }, "\n",
          "</powershell>"
        ]]}}
      }
    },
    "WindowsServerWaitHandle" : {
      "Type" : "AWS::CloudFormation::WaitConditionHandle"
    },
    "WindowsServerWaitCondition" : {
      "Type" : "AWS::CloudFormation::WaitCondition",
      "DependsOn" : "DBServer",
      "Properties" : {
        "Handle" : {"Ref" : "WindowsServerWaitHandle"},
        "Timeout" : "1800"
      }
    }
  }
}

The following script configures the volume to use the master boot record (MBR) partition structure, formats the volume as an NTFS volume, and then assigns a drive letter.

Note: This script is part of the preceding template in step 4 and is called out here for emphasis.

"select disk 2\n",
"attributes disk clear readonly\n",
"clean\n",
"online disk\n",
"convert gpt\n",
"create partition primary\n",
"format quick fs=ntfs label=","\"","ORATEMP","\"","\n",
"assign letter=X\n",
"select disk 3\n",
"attributes disk clear readonly\n",
"clean\n",
"online disk\n",
"convert gpt\n",
"create partition primary\n",
"format quick fs=ntfs label=","\"","ORADATA","\"","\n",
"assign letter=S\n",
"select disk 1\n",
"online disk\n"

5.    Move the script to the files section of AWS::CloudFormation::Init, and then run the script using the command section.

Note: Disk0 is always the root volume.

Tip: Windows Explorer displays the drive sequence alphabetically. To find the disk number assigned to the disk letter from your AWS CloudFormation template, run the diskmgmt command in the Disk Management utility.

6.    Deploy your instance, and then connect to your instance using the Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP).

For this example, your instance now has four drives. Your D drive has the data file that you saved in step 1.

Drive D          =====> Drive with the data file
Drive S          =====> This is the Disk 3 
Drive X          =====> This is the Disk 2

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