What is Amazon Neptune?
Amazon Neptune is a fast, reliable, fully-managed graph database service that makes it easy to build and run applications that work with highly connected datasets. SQL queries for highly connected data are complex and hard to tune for performance. Instead, with Amazon Neptune you can use open and popular graph query languages to execute powerful queries that are easy to write and perform well on connected data. The core of Neptune is a purpose-built, high-performance graph database engine optimized for storing billions of relationships and querying the graph with milliseconds latency. You can use Neptune for graph use cases such as recommendation engines, fraud detection, knowledge graphs, drug discovery, and network security. Amazon Neptune is fully managed and handles the time-consuming tasks such as provisioning, patching, backup, recovery, failure detection and repair. You pay a simple monthly charge for each Amazon Neptune database instance you use. There are no upfront costs or long-term commitments required.
What popular graph query languages does Amazon Neptune support?
Amazon Neptune supports both the open source Apache TinkerPop Gremlin graph traversal language and the W3C standard Resource Description Framework’s (RDF) SPARQL query language.
Can I use Apache TinkerPop Gremlin and RDF/SPARQL on the same Neptune instance?
How can I migrate from an existing Apache TinkerPop Gremlin application to Amazon Neptune?
Do I need to change client drivers to use Amazon Neptune’s Gremlin Server?
How can I migrate from a triple store with a SPARQL endpoint to Amazon Neptune?
Amazon Neptune provides an HTTP REST endpoint that implements the SPARQL 1.1 Protocol. Once you provision a service instance, you can configure your application to point to the SPARQL endpoint. See also Accessing the Graph via SPARQL.
Do I need to change client drivers to use Amazon Neptune’s SPARQL Endpoint?
Is Neptune ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, Durability) compliant?
Why are Amazon RDS permissions and resources required to use Amazon Neptune?
Does Amazon Neptune have a service level agreement (SLA)?
Yes. Please see the Amazon Neptune SLA.
What types of graph query workloads are optimized to work with Amazon Neptune?
Amazon Neptune is designed to support graph applications that require high throughput and low latency graph queries. With support for up to 15 read replicas, Amazon Neptune can support 100,000s of queries per second.
Does Amazon Neptune perform query optimization?
Is Amazon Neptune built on a relational database?
No, Amazon Neptune is a purpose-built, high-performance graph database engine. Neptune efficiently stores and navigates graph data, and uses a scale-up, in-memory optimized architecture to allow for fast query evaluation over large graphs.
How much does Amazon Neptune cost?
Please see our pricing page for current pricing information.
In which AWS regions is Amazon Neptune available?
Please see our pricing page for current information on regions and prices.
Amazon Neptune replicates each chunk of my database volume six ways across three Availability Zones. Does that mean that my effective storage price will be three or six times what is shown on the pricing page?
What are IOs in Amazon Neptune and how are they calculated?
Hardware and Scaling
What are the minimum and maximum storage limits of an Amazon Neptune database?
The minimum storage is 10GB. Based on your database usage, your Amazon Neptune storage will automatically grow, up to 64 TB, in 10GB increments with no impact to database performance. There is no need to provision storage in advance.
How do I scale the compute resources associated with my Amazon Neptune DB Instance?
When you modify your DB Instance class, your requested changes will be applied during your specified maintenance window. Alternatively, you can use the "Apply Immediately" flag to apply your scaling requests immediately. Both of these options will have an availability impact for a few minutes as the scaling operation is performed. Bear in mind that any other pending system changes will also be applied.
Backup and Restore
How do I enable backups for my DB Instance?
Automated backups are always enabled on Amazon Neptune DB Instances. Backups do not impact database performance.
Can I take DB Snapshots and keep them around as long as I want?
If my database fails, what is my recovery path?
What happens to my automated backups and DB Snapshots if I delete my DB Instance?
Can I share my snapshots with another AWS account?
Will I be billed for shared snapshots?
Can I automatically share snapshots?
How many accounts can I share snapshots with?
In which regions can I share my Amazon Neptune snapshots?
Can I share my Amazon Neptune snapshots across different regions?
Can I share an encrypted Amazon Neptune snapshot?
Can I use Amazon Neptune snapshots outside of the service?
High Availability and Replication
How does Amazon Neptune improve my database’s fault tolerance to disk failures?
Amazon Neptune automatically divides your database volume into 10GB segments spread across many disks. Each 10GB chunk of your database volume is replicated six ways, across three Availability Zones. Amazon Neptune is designed to transparently handle the loss of up to two copies of data without affecting database write availability and up to three copies without affecting read availability. Amazon Neptune storage is also self-healing. Data blocks and disks are continuously scanned for errors and repaired automatically.
How does Amazon Neptune improve recovery time after a database crash?
What kind of replicas does Neptune support?
Amazon Neptune supports Read Replicas, which share the same underlying volume as the primary instance. Updates made by the primary are visible to all Amazon Neptune Replicas.
Feature Amazon Neptune Replicas
Number of replicas Up to 15
Replication Type Asynchronous (milliseconds)
Performance impact on primary Low
Act as failover target Yes (no data loss)
Automated failover Yes
Can I have cross-region replicas with Amazon Neptune?
No, Amazon Neptune does not support cross-region replicas.
Can I prioritize certain replicas as failover targets over others?
Yes. You can assign a promotion priority tier to each instance on your cluster. When the primary instance fails, Amazon Neptune will promote the replica with the highest priority to primary. If there is contention between 2 or more replicas in the same priority tier, then Amazon Neptune will promote the replica that is the same size as the primary instance.
Can I modify priority tiers for instances after they have been created?
You can modify the priority tier for an instance at any time. Simply modifying priority tiers will not trigger a failover.
Can I prevent certain replicas from being promoted to the primary instance?
You can assign lower priority tiers to replicas that you don’t want promoted to the primary instance. However, if the higher priority replicas on the cluster are unhealthy or unavailable for some reason, then Amazon Neptune will promote the lower priority replica.
How can I improve upon the availability of a single Amazon Neptune database?
What happens during failover and how long does it take?
Failover is automatically handled by Amazon Neptune so that your applications can resume database operations as quickly as possible without manual administrative intervention.
If you have an Amazon Neptune Replica, in the same or a different Availability Zone, when failing over, Amazon Neptune flips the canonical name record (CNAME) for your DB primary endpoint to a healthy replica, which is in turn is promoted to become the new primary. Start-to-finish, failover typically completes within 30 seconds. Additionally, the read replicas endpoint doesn't require any CNAME updates during failover.
If you do not have an Amazon Neptune Replica (i.e. single instance), Neptune will first attempt to create a new DB Instance in the same Availability Zone as the original instance. If unable to do so, Neptune will attempt to create a new DB Instance in a different Availability Zone. From start to finish, failover typically completes in under 15 minutes.
Your application should retry database requests in the event of connection loss.
If I have a primary database and an Amazon Neptune Replica actively taking read traffic and a failover occurs, what happens?
Amazon Neptune will automatically detect a problem with your primary instance and begin routing your read/write traffic to an Amazon Neptune Replica. On average, this failover will complete within 30 seconds. In addition, the read traffic that your Amazon Neptune Replicas were serving will be briefly interrupted.
How far behind the primary will my replicas be?
Since Amazon Neptune Replicas share the same data volume as the primary instance, there is virtually no replication lag. We typically observe lag times in the 10s of milliseconds.
Can I use Amazon Neptune in Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC)?
Yes, all Amazon Neptune DB Instances must be created in a VPC. With Amazon VPC, you can define a virtual network topology that closely resembles a traditional network that you might operate in your own datacenter. This gives you complete control over who can access your Amazon Neptune databases.