Amazon SageMaker FAQs


SageMaker is a fully managed service to prepare data and build, train, and deploy machine learning (ML) models for any use case with fully managed infrastructure, tools, and workflows.

For a list of the supported SageMaker Regions, please visit the AWS Regional Services page. Also, for more information, see Regional endpoints in the AWS general reference guide.

SageMaker is designed for high availability. There are no maintenance windows or scheduled downtimes. SageMaker APIs run in Amazon proven high-availability data centers, with service stack replication configured across three facilities in each Region to provide fault tolerance in the event of a server failure or Availability Zone outage.

SageMaker stores code in ML storage volumes, secured by security groups and optionally encrypted at rest.

SageMaker ensures that ML model artifacts and other system artifacts are encrypted in transit and at rest. Requests to the SageMaker API and console are made over a secure (SSL) connection. You pass AWS Identity and Access Management roles to SageMaker to provide permissions to access resources on your behalf for training and deployment. You can use encrypted Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3) buckets for model artifacts and data, as well as pass an AWS Key Management Service (AWS KMS) key to SageMaker notebooks, training jobs, and endpoints to encrypt the attached ML storage volume. SageMaker also supports Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (Amazon VPC) and AWS PrivateLink support.

SageMaker does not use or share customer models, training data, or algorithms. We know that customers care deeply about privacy and data security. That's why AWS gives you ownership and control over your content through simplified, powerful tools that allow you to determine where your content will be stored, secure your content in transit and at rest, and manage your access to AWS services and resources for your users. We also implement technical and physical controls that are designed to prevent unauthorized access to or disclosure of your content. As a customer, you maintain ownership of your content, and you select which AWS services can process, store, and host your content. We do not access your content for any purpose without your consent.

You pay for ML compute, storage, and data processing resources that you use for hosting the notebook, training the model, performing predictions, and logging the outputs. With SageMaker, you can select the number and type of instance used for the hosted notebook, training, and model hosting. You pay only for what you use, as you use it; there are no minimum fees and no upfront commitments. For more details, see Amazon SageMaker Pricing and the Amazon SageMaker Pricing Calculator.

There are several best practices that you can adopt to optimize your SageMaker resource usage. Some approaches involve configuration optimizations; others involve programmatic solutions. A full guide on this concept, complete with visual tutorials and code samples, can be found in this blog post.

SageMaker provides a full and complete workflow, but you can continue using your existing tools with SageMaker. You can easily transfer the results of each stage in and out of SageMaker as your business requirements dictate.

Yes. You can use R within SageMaker notebook instances, which include a preinstalled R kernel and the reticulate library. Reticulate offers an R interface for the Amazon SageMaker Python SDK, helping ML practitioners build, train, tune, and deploy R models. You can also launch RStudio, an integrated development environment (IDE) for R in Amazon SageMaker Studio.  

Amazon SageMaker Studio provides a single, web-based visual interface where you can perform all ML development steps. SageMaker Studio gives you complete access, control, and visibility into each step required to prepare data and build, train, and deploy models. You can quickly upload data, create new notebooks, train and tune models, move back and forth between steps to adjust experiments, compare results, and deploy models to production all in one place, making you much more productive. All ML development activities including notebooks, experiment management, automatic model creation, debugging and profiling, and model drift detection can be performed within the unified SageMaker Studio visual interface.. 

There is no additional charge for using SageMaker Studio. You pay only for the underlying compute and storage charges on the services that you use within SageMaker Studio.

You can find the Regions where SageMaker Studio is supported in the Amazon SageMaker Developer Guide.

Amazon SageMaker Clarify helps improve model transparency by detecting statistical bias across the entire ML workflow. SageMaker Clarify checks for imbalances during data preparation, after training, and ongoing over time, and also includes tools to help explain ML models and their predictions. Findings can be shared through explainability reports.

Measuring bias in ML models is a first step toward mitigating bias. Bias can be measured before training (as part of data preparation), after training (using Amazon SageMaker Experiments), and during inference for a deployed model (with Amazon SageMaker Model Monitor). Each of the over 20 bias metrics corresponds to a different notion of fairness. You choose metrics that are valid for the application and situation being investigated. For example, before training, metrics like Class Imbalance and differences in label distribution across groups check if the training data is representative of the overall population. SageMaker Clarify considers both positive (favorable) outcome differences and individual label distribution differences in order to detect whether one group is underrepresented. After training or during deployment, bias metrics help measure if, and how much, the model's performance differs across groups. Metrics like Equal Representation and Disparate Impact measure differences in positive predictions. Equal Performance metrics, like difference in precision (likelihood a positive prediction is correct) and recall (likelihood the model correctly labels a positive example), evaluate equal error distribution across groups. Learn more from this blog post. 

RStudio on SageMaker is the first fully managed RStudio Workbench in the cloud. You can quickly launch the familiar RStudio integrated development environment (IDE) and dial up and down the underlying compute resources without interrupting your work, making it easier to build ML and analytics solutions in R at scale. You can seamlessly switch between the RStudio IDE and SageMaker Studio notebooks for R and Python development. All your work, including code, datasets, repositories, and other artifacts, is automatically synchronized between the two environments to reduce context switch and boost productivity.

SageMaker Clarify is integrated with SageMaker Experiments to provide a feature importance graph detailing the importance of each input for your model’s overall decision-making process after the model has been trained. These details can help determine if a particular model input has more influence than it should on overall model behavior. SageMaker Clarify also makes explanations for individual predictions available through an API. 

ML governance

SageMaker provides purpose-built ML governance tools across the ML lifecycle. With Amazon SageMaker Role Manager, administrators can define minimum permissions in minutes. Amazon SageMaker Model Cards makes it easier to capture, retrieve, and share essential model information from conception to deployment, and Amazon SageMaker Model Dashboard keeps you informed on production model behavior, all in one place. For
more information, see ML Governance with Amazon SageMaker.

You can define minimum permissions in minutes with SageMaker Role Manager. It provides a baseline set of permissions for ML activities and personas with a catalog of pre-built IAM policies. You can keep the baseline permissions, or customize them further based on your specific needs. With a few self-guided prompts, you can quickly input common governance constructs such as network access boundaries and encryption keys. SageMaker Role Manager will then generate the IAM policy automatically. You can discover the generated role and associated policies through the AWS IAM console. To further tailor the permissions to your use case, attach your managed IAM policies to the IAM role that you create with SageMaker Role Manager. You can also add tags to help identify the role and organize across AWS services.

SageMaker Model Cards helps you centralize and standardize model documentation throughout the ML lifecycle by creating a single source of truth for model information. SageMaker Model Cards auto-populates training details to accelerate the documentation process. You can also add details such as the purpose of the model and the performance goals. You can attach model evaluation results to your model card and provide visualizations to gain key insights into model performance. SageMaker Model Cards can easily be shared with others by exporting to a PDF format.

SageMaker Model Dashboard gives you a comprehensive overview of deployed models and endpoints, letting you track resources and model behavior violations through one pane. It allows you to monitor model behavior in four dimensions, including data and model quality, and bias and feature attribution drift through its integration with SageMaker Model Monitor and SageMaker Clarify. SageMaker Model Dashboard also provides an integrated experience to set up and receive alerts for missing and inactive model monitoring jobs, and deviations in model behavior for model quality, data quality, bias drift, and feature attribution drift. You can further inspect individual models and analyze factors impacting model performance over time. Then, you can follow up with ML practitioners to take corrective measures.

Foundation models

SageMaker JumpStart helps you quickly and easily get started with ML. SageMaker JumpStart provides a set of solutions for the most common use cases that can be deployed readily in just a few steps. The solutions are fully customizable and showcase the use of AWS CloudFormation templates and reference architectures so you can accelerate your ML journey. SageMaker JumpStart also provides foundation models and supports one-step deployment and fine-tuning of more than 150 popular open-source models, such as transformer, object detection, and image classification models. 

SageMaker JumpStart provides proprietary and public models. For a list of available foundation models, see Getting Started with Amazon SageMaker JumpStart .

You can access foundation models through SageMaker Studio, the SageMaker SDK, and the AWS Management Console. To get started with proprietary foundation models, you must accept terms of sale in the AWS Marketplace .

No. Your inference and training data will not be used nor shared to update or train the base model that SageMaker JumpStart surfaces to customers.

No. Proprietary models do not allow customers to view model weights and scripts.

Models are discoverable in all Regions  where SageMaker Studio is available, but the ability to deploy a model differs by model and instance availability of the required instance type. You can refer to AWS Region availability and required instance from the model detail page in the AWS Marketplace .

For proprietary models, you are charged for software pricing determined by the model provider and SageMaker infrastructure charges based on the instance used. For publicly available models, you are charged SageMaker infrastructure charges based on the instance used. For more information, see Amazon SageMaker Pricing and the AWS Marketplace .

Security is the top priority at AWS, and SageMaker JumpStart is designed to be secure. That's why SageMaker gives you ownership and control over your content through simplified, powerful tools that help you determine where your content will be stored, secure your content in transit and at rest, and manage your access to AWS services and resources for your users.

  1. We do not share customer training and inference information with model sellers in the AWS Marketplace. Similarly, the seller’s model artifacts (for example, model weights) are not shared with the buyer.
  2. SageMaker JumpStart does not use customer models, training data, or algorithms to improve its service and does not share customer training and inference data with third parties.
  3. In SageMaker JumpStart, ML model artifacts are encrypted in transit and at rest.
  4. Under the AWS Shared Responsibility Model, AWS is responsible for protecting the global infrastructure that runs all of AWS. You are responsible for maintaining control over your content that is hosted on this infrastructure.

By using a model from AWS Marketplace or SageMaker JumpStart, users assume responsibility for the model output quality and acknowledge the capabilities and limitations described in the individual model description.

SageMaker JumpStart includes over 150 pre-trained publicly available models from PyTorch Hub and TensorFlow Hub. For vision tasks such as image classification and object detection, you can use models like RESNET, MobileNet, and single-shot detector (SSD). For text tasks such as sentence classification, text classification, and question answering, you can use models like BERT, RoBERTa, and DistilBERT.

With SageMaker JumpStart, data scientists and ML developers can easily share ML artifacts, including notebooks and models, within their organization. Administrators can set up a repository that is accessible by a defined set of users. All users with permission to access the repository can browse, search, and use models and notebooks as well as the public content inside SageMaker JumpStart. Users can select artifacts to train models, deploy endpoints, and execute notebooks in SageMaker JumpStart.

With SageMaker JumpStart, you can accelerate time-to-market when building ML applications. Models and notebooks built by one team inside your organization can be easily shared with other teams within your organization in just a few steps. Internal knowledge sharing and asset reuse can significantly increase the productivity of your organization.

Amazon SageMaker Clarify now supports foundation model evaluation. You can evaluate, compare, and select the best foundation models for your specific use case. Simply choose the model that you want to evaluate for a given task, such as question answering or content summarization. And then select the evaluation criteria (e.g., accuracy, fairness, and robustness) and upload your own prompt dataset or select from built-in, publicly available datasets. For subjective criteria or nuanced content that requires sophisticated human judgement, you can choose to leverage your own workforce or use a managed workforce provided by AWS to review the responses. Once you finish the setup process, SageMaker Clarify runs its evaluations and generates a report, so you can easily understand how the model performed across key criteria. You can evaluate the foundation models in SageMaker JumpStart using the evaluation wizard or any foundation models that are not hosting on AWS using the open-source library.

Yes. Admins can control which Amazon SageMaker JumpStart models are visible and usable to their users across multiple AWS accounts and user principals. To learn more, see documentation.

Inference optimization toolkit makes it easy for you to implement the latest inference optimization techniques in order to achieve state-of-the-art (SOTA) cost performance on Amazon SageMaker, while saving months of developer time. You can choose from a menu of popular optimization techniques provided by SageMaker and run optimization jobs ahead of time, benchmark the model for performance and accuracy metrics, and then deploy the optimized model to a SageMaker endpoint for inference. The toolkit handles all aspects of the model optimization, so you can focus more on your business objectives.

Inference optimization toolkit helps you improve cost performance and time to market for generative AI applications. The fully-managed model optimization toolkit gives you access to the latest optimization techniques with easy-to-use tooling. It is also easy to upgrade to the best available solution over time as the toolkit adapts continually to state-of-the-art innovations, new hardware and hosting features.

Inference optimization toolkit supports optimization techniques such as Speculative Decoding, Quantization and Compilation. You can choose the optimizations you want to add to your model in a few clicks, and Amazon SageMaker will manage all of the undifferentiated heavy lifting of procuring the hardware, selecting the deep-learning container and corresponding tuning parameters to run the optimization jobs, and then saving the optimized model artifacts in the S3 location provided by you.

For Speculative Decoding, you can get started with SageMaker provided draft model, so that you don’t have to build your own draft models from scratch, and request routing and system level optimizations. With Quantization, you simply choose the precision type you want to use and start a benchmarking job to measure performance versus accuracy tradeoffs. Amazon SageMaker will generate a comprehensive evaluation report so you can easily analyze the trade-off between performance and accuracy. With Compilation, for the most popular models and their configurations, Amazon SageMaker will automatically fetch compiled model artifacts during endpoint set up and scaling, this removes the need for you to run compilation jobs ahead of time, saving you hardware costs.

Amazon SageMaker inference optimization toolkit helps reduce your costs and time to optimize GenAI models, allowing you to focus on your business objectives.

Low-code ML

SageMaker Canvas is a no-code service with an intuitive, point-and-click interface that lets you create highly accurate ML-based predictions from your data. SageMaker Canvas lets you access and combine data from a variety of sources using a drag-and-drop user interface, automatically cleaning and preparing data to minimize manual cleanup. SageMaker Canvas applies a variety of state-of-the-art ML algorithms to find highly accurate predictive models and provides an intuitive interface to make predictions. You can use SageMaker Canvas to make much more precise predictions in a variety of business applications and easily collaborate with data scientists and analysts in your enterprise by sharing your models, data, and reports. To learn more about SageMaker Canvas, see Amazon SageMaker Canvas FAQs .

SageMaker Autopilot is the industry’s first automated machine learning capability that gives you complete control and visibility into your ML models. SageMaker Autopilot automatically inspects raw data, applies feature processors, picks the best set of algorithms, trains and tunes multiple models, tracks their performance, and then ranks the models based on performance, all with just a few clicks. The result is the best-performing model that you can deploy at a fraction of the time normally required to train the model. You get full visibility into how the model was created and what’s in it, and SageMaker Autopilot integrates with SageMaker Studio. You can explore up to 50 different models generated by SageMaker Autopilot inside SageMaker Studio so it’s easy to pick the best model for your use case. SageMaker Autopilot can be used by people without ML experience to easily produce a model, or it can be used by experienced developers to quickly develop a baseline model on which teams can further iterate.

With SageMaker Canvas, you pay based on usage. SageMaker Canvas lets you interactively ingest, explore, and prepare your data from multiple sources, train highly accurate ML models with your data, and generate predictions. There are two components that determine your bill: session charges based on the number of hours for which SageMaker Canvas is used or logged into, and charges for training the model based on the size of the dataset used to build the model. For more information, see Amazon SageMaker Canvas Pricing .

Yes. You can stop a job at any time. When a SageMaker Autopilot job is stopped, all ongoing trials will be stopped and no new trial will be started.

ML workflows

Amazon SageMaker Pipelines  helps you create fully automated ML workflows from data preparation through model deployment so you can scale to thousands of ML models in production. You can create Pipelines with the SageMaker Python SDK and view, execute, audit them from the visual interface of the SageMaker Studio. SageMaker Pipelines takes care of managing data between steps, packaging the code recipes, and orchestrating their execution, reducing months of coding to a few hours. Every time a workflow executes, a complete record of the data processed and actions taken is kept so data scientists and ML developers can quickly debug problems.

You can use a model registration step in your SageMaker Pipeline to consolidate all models that are candidates for deployment in one place. Later you or someone else on your team can discover, review, and approve these models for deployment in the SageMaker Model Registry either through the SageMaker Studio UI or the Python SDK.
A SageMaker Pipeline is composed of ‘steps’. You can choose any of the natively supported step types to compose a workflow that invokes various SageMaker features (eg. training, evaluation) or other AWS services (eg. EMR, Lambda). You can also lift-and-shift your existing ML Python code into SageMaker Pipeline by either using the ‘@step’ python decorator or adding entire python Notebooks as components of the Pipeline. For additional details, please refer to the SageMaker Pipelines developer guide.
SageMaker Pipelines automatically keeps track of all model constituents and keeps an audit trail of all changes, thereby eliminating manual tracking, and can help you achieve compliance goals. You can track data, code, trained models, and more with SageMaker Pipelines.

There is no additional charge for SageMaker Pipelines. You pay only for the underlying compute or any separate AWS services you use within SageMaker Pipelines.

Yes. Amazon SageMaker Components for Kubeflow Pipelines are open-source plugins that allow you to use Kubeflow Pipelines to define your ML workflows and use SageMaker for the data labeling, training, and inference steps. Kubeflow Pipelines is an add-on to Kubeflow that lets you build and deploy portable and scalable complete ML pipelines. However, when using Kubeflow Pipelines, ML ops teams need to manage a Kubernetes cluster with CPU and GPU instances and keep its utilization high at all times to reduce operational costs. Maximizing the utilization of a cluster across data science teams is challenging and adds additional operational overhead to the ML ops teams. As an alternative to an ML-optimized Kubernetes cluster, with SageMaker Components for Kubeflow Pipelines you can take advantage of powerful SageMaker features such as data labeling, fully managed large-scale hyperparameter tuning and distributed training jobs, one-click secure and scalable model deployment, and cost-effective training through Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (Amazon EC2) Spot Instances without needing to configure and manage Kubernetes clusters specifically to run the ML jobs.

There is no additional charge for using SageMaker Components for Kubeflow Pipelines. 


Human-in-the-loop is the process of harnessing human input across the ML lifecycle to improve the accuracy and relevancy of models. Humans can perform a variety of tasks, from data generation and annotation, to model review and customization. Human intervention is especially important for generative AI applications, where humans are typically both the requester and consumer of the content. It is therefore critical that humans train foundation models (FMs) how to respond accurately, safely, and relevantly to users’ prompts. Human feedback can be applied to help you complete multiple tasks. First, creating high quality labeled training datasets for generative AI applications via supervised learning (where a human simulates the style, length, and accuracy of how a model should respond to user’s prompts) and reinforcement learning with human feedback (where a human ranks and classifies model responses). Second, using human-generated data to customize FMs on specific tasks or with your company and domain specific data and make model output relevant for you.

Human-in-the-loop capabilities play an important role in creating and improving generative AI applications powered by FMs. A highly skilled human workforce that is trained on the tasks’ guidelines can provide feedback, guidance, inputs, and assessment in activities like generating demonstration data to train FMs, correcting and improving sample responses, fine-tuning a model based on company and industry data, acting as a safeguard against toxicity and bias and more. Human-in-the-loop capabilities, therefore, can improve model accuracy and performance. 

Amazon SageMaker Ground Truth offers the most comprehensive set of human-in-the-loop capabilities. There are two ways to use Amazon SageMaker Ground Truth, a self-service offering and a AWS-managed offering. In the self-service offering, your data annotators, content creators, and prompt engineers (in-house, vendor-managed, or leveraging the public crowd) can use our low-code user interface to accelerate human-in-the-loop tasks, while having flexibility to build and manage your own custom workflows. In the AWS-managed offering (SageMaker Ground Truth Plus), we handle the heavy lifting for you, which includes selecting and managing the right workforce for your use case. SageMaker Ground Truth Plus designs and customizes an end-to-end workflow (including detailed workforce training and quality assurance steps) and provides a skilled AWS-managed team which is trained on the specific tasks and meets your data quality, security, and compliance requirements. 

Prepare data

SageMaker Data Wrangler reduces the time it takes to aggregate and prepare data for ML. From a single interface in SageMaker Studio, you can browse and import data from Amazon S3, Amazon Athena, Amazon Redshift, AWS Lake Formation, Amazon EMR, Snowflake and Databricks in just a few steps. You can also query and import data that is transferred from over 50 data sources and registered in AWS Glue Data Catalog by Amazon AppFlow. SageMaker Data Wrangler will automatically load, aggregate, and display the raw data. After importing your data into SageMaker Data Wrangler, you can see automatically generated column summaries and histograms. You can then dig deeper to understand your data and identify potential errors with the SageMaker Data Wrangler Data Quality and Insights report, which provides summary statistics and data quality warnings. You can also run bias analysis supported by SageMaker Clarify directly from SageMaker Data Wrangler to detect potential bias during data preparation. From there, you can use SageMaker Data Wrangler’s pre-built transformations to prepare your data. Once your data is prepared, you can build fully automated ML workflows with Amazon SageMaker Pipelines or import that data into Amazon SageMaker Feature Store .

SageMaker Data Wrangler supports tabular, time-series, and image data, offering 300+ pre-configured data transformations to prepare these different data modalities. For customers wanting to prepare text data in Data Wrangler for NLP use cases, Data Wrangler supports the NLTK library so that customers can prepare text data by authoring their own custom transformations in Data Wrangler.
SageMaker Data Wrangler offers a selection of over 300 prebuilt, PySpark-based data transformations, so you can transform your data and scale your data preparation workflow without writing a single line of code. Additionally, you can transform your data for ML models using a FM-powered natural language interface or author a custom code snippet from the SageMaker Data Wrangler library of snippets.
SageMaker Data Wrangler helps you understand your data and identify potential errors and extreme values with a set of robust preconfigured visualization templates. Histograms, scatter plots, and ML-specific visualizations, such as target leakage detection, are all available without writing a single line of code. You can also create and edit your own visualizations.

You pay for all ML compute, storage, and data processing resources you use for SageMaker Data Wrangler. You can review all the details of SageMaker Data Wrangler pricing here . As part of the AWS Free Tier , you can also get started with SageMaker Data Wrangler for free.

SageMaker Data Wrangler provides a unified experience enabling you to prepare data and seamlessly train a machine learning model in SageMaker Canvas. SageMaker Canvas automatically builds, trains, and tunes the best ML models based on your data. You can also use features prepared in SageMaker Data Wrangler with your existing models. You can configure SageMaker Data Wrangler processing jobs to run as part of your SageMaker training pipeline either by configuring the job in the user interface (UI) or exporting a notebook with the orchestration code.
You can configure and launch SageMaker processing jobs directly from the SageMaker Data Wrangler UI, including scheduling your data processing job and parameterizing your data sources to easily transform new batches of data at scale.
Once you have prepared your data, SageMaker Data Wrangler provides different options for promoting your SageMaker Data Wrangler flow to production and integrates seamlessly with MLOps and CI/CD capabilities. You can configure and launch SageMaker processing jobs directly from the SageMaker Data Wrangler UI, including scheduling your data processing job and parameterizing your data sources to easily transform new batches of data at scale. Alternatively, SageMaker Data Wrangler integrates seamlessly with SageMaker processing and the SageMaker Spark container, allowing you to easily use SageMaker SDKs to integrate SageMaker Data Wrangler into your production workflow.
In a few steps, SageMaker Data Wrangler splits and trains an XGBoost model with default hyperparameters. Based on the problem type, SageMaker Data Wrangler provides a model summary, feature summary, and confusion matrix to quickly give you insight so you can iterate on your data preparation flows.
SageMaker Data Wrangler supports various sampling techniques–such as top-K, random, and stratified sampling for importing data—so that you can quickly transform your data using the SageMaker Data Wrangler UI. If you are using large or wide datasets, you can increase the SageMaker Data Wrangler instance size to improve performance. Once you have created your flow, you can process your full dataset using SageMaker Data Wrangler processing jobs.
Yes, you can configure SageMaker Feature Store as a destination for your features prepared in SageMaker Data Wrangler. This can be done directly in the UI or you can export a notebook generated specifically for processing data with SageMaker Feature Store as the destination.

SageMaker Feature Store is a fully managed, purpose-built platform to store, share, and manage features for machine learning (ML) models. Features can be discovered and shared for easy reuse across models and teams with secure access and control, including across AWS accounts. SageMaker Feature Store supports both online and offline features for real-time inference, batch inference and training. It also manages batch and streaming feature engineering pipelines to reduce duplication in feature creation and improve model accuracy.

Offline features are typically large volumes of historic data that are used for training and batch inference. Offline features are maintained in a high availability, high durability object store.
Online features are used in applications in order to make real-time predictions. Online features are served from a high-throughput store that supports single-digit millisecond latency from client applications for fast predictions.
SageMaker Feature Store automatically maintains consistency between online and offline features without additional management or code, for consistency across training and inference environments.
SageMaker Feature Store maintains time stamps for all features and provides built-in methods that help you retrieve features at any point of time, for business or compliance needs. Instead of writing complex SQL queries or writing a lot of code, you can call the built-in methods for time travel and point-in-time accurate joins to generate data sets for training and batch inference for the time period of interest

You can get started with SageMaker Feature Store for free, as part of the AWS Free Tier . With SageMaker Feature Store, you pay for writing into the feature store, and reading and storage from the online feature store. For pricing details, see Amazon SageMaker Pricing .

SageMaker provides two data labeling offerings, Amazon SageMaker Ground Truth Plus and Amazon SageMaker Ground Truth. Both options allow you to identify raw data, such as images, text files, and videos, and add informative labels to create high-quality training datasets for your ML models. To learn more, see Amazon SageMaker Data Labeling .

Geospatial data represents features or objects on the earth’s surface. The first type of geospatial data is vector data which uses two-dimensional geometries such as, points, lines, or polygons to represent objects like roads and land boundaries. The second type of geospatial data is raster data such as imagery captured by satellite, aerial platforms, or remote sensing data. This data type uses a matrix of pixels to define where features are located. You can use raster formats for storing data that varies. A third type of geospatial data is geotagged location data. It includes points of interest—for example, the Eiffel Tower—location tagged social media posts, latitude and longitude coordinates, or different styles and formats of street addresses.
SageMaker geospatial capabilities make it easier for data scientists and ML engineers to build, train, and deploy ML models for making predictions using geospatial data. You can bring your own data, for example, Planet Labs satellite data from Amazon S3, or acquire data from Open Data on AWS, Amazon Location Service, and other SageMaker geospatial data sources.
You can use SageMaker geospatial capabilities to make predictions on geospatial data faster than do-it-yourself solutions. SageMaker geospatial capabilities make it easier to access geospatial data from your existing customer data lakes, open-source datasets, and other SageMaker geospatial data sources. SageMaker geospatial capabilities minimize the need for building custom infrastructure and data preprocessing functions by offering purpose-built algorithms for efficient data preparation, model training, and inference. You can also create and share custom visualizations and data with your organization from SageMaker Studio. SageMaker geospatial capabilities include pre-trained models for common uses in agriculture, real estate, insurance, and financial services.

Build models

You can use fully managed Jupyter notebooks in SageMaker for the complete ML development. Scale compute instances up and down with the board selection of compute-optimized and GPU-accelerated instances in the cloud.

SageMaker Studio notebooks are one-step Jupyter notebooks that can be spun quickly. The underlying compute resources are fully elastic, so you can easily dial up or down the available resources and the changes take place automatically in the background without interrupting your work. SageMaker also enables one-step sharing of notebooks. You can easily share notebooks with others and they’ll get the exact same notebook, saved in the same place.

With SageMaker Studio notebooks, you can sign in with your corporate credentials using IAM Identity Center. Sharing notebooks within and across teams is easy since the dependencies needed to run a notebook are automatically tracked in work images that are encapsulated with the notebook as it is shared.

Notebooks in SageMaker Studio IDEs offer a few important features that differentiate them from the instance-based notebooks. First, you can quickly launch notebooks without needing to manually provision an instance and waiting for it to be operational. The startup time of launching the UI to read and execute a notebook is faster than the instance-based notebooks. You also have the flexibility to choose from a large collection of instance types from within the UI at any time. You do not need to go to the AWS Management Console to start new instances and port over your notebooks. Each user has an isolated home directory independent of a particular instance. This directory is automatically mounted into all notebook servers and kernels as they’re started, so you can access your notebooks and other files even when you switch instances to view and run your notebooks. SageMaker Studio notebooks are integrated with AWS IAM Identity Center (successor to AWS SSO), making it easier to use your organizational credentials to access the notebooks. They are also integrated with purpose-built ML tools in SageMaker and other AWS services for your complete ML development, from preparing data at petabyte scale using Spark on Amazon EMR, training and debugging models, to deploying and monitoring models and managing pipelines.
SageMaker notebooks in Studio IDEs give you access to all SageMaker features, such as distributed training, batch transform, and hosting. You can also access other services such as datasets in Amazon S3, Amazon Redshift, AWS Glue, Amazon EMR, or AWS Lake Formation from SageMaker notebooks.

ML practitioners can create a shared workspace where teammates can read and edit SageMaker Studio notebooks together. By using the shared paces, teammates can coedit the same notebook file, run notebook code simultaneously, and review the results together to eliminate back and forth and streamline collaboration. In the shared spaces, ML teams will have built-in support for services like BitBucket and AWS CodeCommit, so they can easily manage different versions of their notebook and compare changes over time. Any resources created from within the notebooks, such as experiments and ML models, are automatically saved and associated with the specific workspace where they were created so teams can more easily stay organized and accelerate ML model development.

You pay for both compute and storage when you use SageMaker notebooks in Studio IDEs. See Amazon SageMaker Pricing for charges by compute instance type. Your notebooks and associated artifacts such as data files and scripts are persisted on Amazon Elastic File System (Amazon EFS). See Amazon EFS Pricing for storage charges. As part of the AWS Free Tier, you can get started with notebooks in SageMaker Studio for free.

No. You can create and run multiple notebooks on the same compute instance. You pay only for the compute that you use, not for individual items. You can read more about this in our metering guide .

In addition to the notebooks, you can also start and run terminals and interactive shells in SageMaker Studio, all on the same compute instance. Each application runs within a container or image. SageMaker Studio provides several built-in images purpose-built and preconfigured for data science and ML.

You can monitor and shut down the resources used by your SageMaker Studio notebooks through both SageMaker Studio visual interface and the AWS Management Console. See the documentation for more details.

Yes, you will continue to be charged for the compute. This is similar to starting Amazon EC2 instances in the AWS Management Console and then closing the browser. The Amazon EC2 instances are still running and you still incur charges unless you explicitly shut down the instance.

No, you don’t get charged for creating or configuring an SageMaker Studio domain, including adding, updating, and deleting user profiles.

As an admin, you can view the list of itemized charges for SageMaker, including SageMaker Studio, in the AWS Billing console. From the AWS Management Console for SageMaker, choose Services on the top menu, type "billing" in the search box and select Billing from the dropdown, and then select Bills on the left panel. In the Details section, you can select SageMaker to expand the list of Regions and drill down to the itemized charges.

SageMaker Studio Lab is a free ML development environment that provides the compute, storage (up to 15 GB), and security—all at no cost—for anyone to learn and experiment with ML. All you need to get started is a valid email ID; you don’t need to configure infrastructure or manage identity and access or even sign up for an AWS account. SageMaker Studio Lab accelerates model building through GitHub integration, and it comes preconfigured with the most popular ML tools, frameworks, and libraries to get you started immediately. SageMaker Studio Lab automatically saves your work so you don’t need to restart between sessions. It’s as easy as closing your laptop and coming back later.
SageMaker Studio Lab is for students, researchers, and data scientists who need a free notebook development environment with no setup required for their ML classes and experiments. SageMaker Studio Lab is ideal for users who do not need a production environment but still want a subset of the SageMaker functionality to improve their ML skills. SageMaker sessions are automatically saved, helping users pick up where they left off for each user session.
SageMaker Studio Lab is a service built on AWS and uses many of the same core services as Amazon SageMaker Studio, such as Amazon S3 and Amazon EC2. Unlike the other services, customers will not need an AWS account. Instead, they will create an SageMaker Studio Lab specific account with an email address. This will give the user access to a limited environment (15 GB of storage, and 12 hour sessions) for them to run ML notebooks.

SageMaker Canvas is a visual drag-and-drop service that allows business analysts to build ML models and generate accurate predictions without writing any code or requiring ML expertise. SageMaker Canvas makes it easier to access and combine data from a variety of sources, automatically clean data and apply a variety of data adjustments, and build ML models to generate accurate predictions in a single step. You can also easily publish results, explain and interpret models, and share models with others within your organization to review.

SageMaker Canvas helps you seamlessly discover AWS data sources that your account has access to, including Amazon S3 and Amazon Redshift. You can browse and import data using the SageMaker Canvas visual drag-and-drop interface. Additionally, you can drag and drop files from your local disk, and use pre-built connectors to import data from third-party sources such as Snowflake.

Once you have connected sources, selected a dataset, and prepared your data, you can select the target column that you want to predict to initiate a model creation job. SageMaker Canvas will automatically identify the problem type, generate new relevant features, test a comprehensive set of prediction models using ML techniques such as linear regression, logistic regression, deep learning, time-series forecasting, and gradient boosting, and build the model that makes accurate predictions based on your dataset.

The time it takes to build a model depends on the size of your dataset. Small datasets can take less than 30 minutes, and large datasets can take a few hours. As the model creation job progresses, SageMaker Canvas provides detailed visual updates, including percent job complete and the amount of time left for job completion.

Train models

SageMaker HyperPod is purpose-built to accelerate foundation model (FM) training. It provides a more resilient infrastructure optimized for large-scale distributed training, allowing you to train on thousands of accelerators faster. It automatically detects, diagnoses, and recovers from the faults, so you can train FMs for months at a time without disruption. SageMaker HyperPod is pre-configured with SageMaker distributed training libraries to help you efficiently improve performance by distributing model training data into smaller chunks, so it can be processed in parallel across accelerators.
If you need longer and larger training workloads that require high amount of compute instances such as GPUs or AWS accelerators, you can use SageMaker HyperPod for a more resilient experience to reduce training time.

Yes. SageMaker can automatically distribute deep learning models and large training sets across AWS GPU instances in a fraction of the time it takes to build and optimize these distribution strategies manually. The two distributed training techniques that SageMaker applies are data parallelism and model parallelism. Data parallelism is applied to improve training speeds by dividing the data equally across multiple GPU instances, allowing each instance to train concurrently. Model parallelism is useful for models too large to be stored on a single GPU and require the model to be partitioned into smaller parts before distributing across multiple GPUs. With only a few lines of additional code in your PyTorch and TensorFlow training scripts, SageMaker will automatically apply data parallelism or model parallelism for you, allowing you to develop and deploy your models faster. SageMaker will determine the best approach to split your model by using graph partitioning algorithms to balance the computation of each GPU while minimizing the communication between GPU instances. SageMaker also optimizes your distributed training jobs through algorithms that fully utilize the AWS compute and network in order to achieve near-linear scaling efficiency, which allows you to complete training faster than manual open-source implementations.

SageMaker Experiments helps you organize and track iterations to ML models. SageMaker Experiments helps you manage iterations by automatically capturing the input parameters, configurations, and results, and storing them as "experiments". You can create an Amazon SageMaker experiment to track your ML workflows with a few lines of code from your preferred development environment. You can also integrate SageMaker Experiments into your SageMaker training script using the SageMaker Python SDK.

SageMaker Training Compiler is a deep learning (DL) compiler that accelerates DL model training by up to 50 percent through graph- and kernel-level optimizations to use GPUs more efficiently. SageMaker Training Compiler is integrated with versions of TensorFlow and PyTorch in SageMaker, so you can speed up training in these popular frameworks with minimal code changes.

SageMaker Debugger automatically captures real-time metrics during training, such as confusion matrices and learning gradients, to help improve model accuracy. The metrics from SageMaker Debugger can be visualized in SageMaker Studio for easy understanding. SageMaker Debugger can also generate warnings and remediation advice when common training problems are detected. SageMaker Debugger also automatically monitors and profiles system resources such as CPUs, GPUs, network, and memory in real time, and provides recommendations on re-allocation of these resources. This helps you use your resources efficiently during training and helps reduce costs and resources.

SageMaker Training Compiler accelerates training jobs by converting DL models from their high-level language representation to hardware-optimized instructions that train faster than jobs with the native frameworks. More specifically, SageMaker Training Compiler uses graph-level optimization (operator fusion, memory planning, and algebraic simplification), data flow-level optimizations (layout transformation, common sub-expression elimination), and backend optimizations (memory latency hiding, loop oriented optimizations) to produce an optimized model training job that more efficiently uses hardware resources and, as a result, trains faster.

Managed Spot Training with SageMaker lets you train your ML models using Amazon EC2 Spot Instances, while reducing the cost of training your models by up to 90%.

SageMaker Training Compiler is built into the SageMaker Python SDK and SageMaker Hugging Face Deep Learning Containers. You don’t need to change your workflows to access its speedup benefits. You can run training jobs in the same way as you already do, using any of the SageMaker interfaces: SageMaker notebook instances, SageMaker Studio, AWS SDK for Python (Boto3), and AWS Command Line Interface (AWS CLI). You can enable SageMaker Training Compiler by adding a TrainingCompilerConfig class as a parameter when you create a framework estimator object. Practically, this means a couple of lines of code added to your existing training job script for a single GPU instance. Most up-to-date detailed documentation, sample notebooks, and examples are available in the documentation .

You enable the Managed Spot Training option when submitting your training jobs and you also specify how long you want to wait for Spot capacity. SageMaker will then use Amazon EC2 Spot Instances to run your job and manages the Spot capacity. You have full visibility into the status of your training jobs, both while they are running and while they are waiting for capacity.

SageMaker Training Compiler is a SageMaker Training feature and is provided at no additional charge exclusively to SageMaker customers. Customers can actually reduce their costs with SageMaker Training Compiler as training times are reduced.

Managed Spot Training is ideal when you have flexibility with your training runs and when you want to minimize the cost of your training jobs. With Managed Spot Training, you can reduce the cost of training your ML models by up to 90%.
Managed Spot Training uses Amazon EC2 Spot Instances for training, and these instances can be pre-empted when AWS needs capacity. As a result, Managed Spot Training jobs can run in small increments as and when capacity becomes available. The training jobs need not be restarted from scratch when there is an interruption, as SageMaker can resume the training jobs using the latest model checkpoint. The built-in frameworks and the built-in computer vision algorithms with SageMaker enable periodic checkpoints, and you can enable checkpoints with custom models.
We recommend periodic checkpoints as a general best practice for long-running training jobs. This prevents your Managed Spot Training jobs from restarting if capacity is pre-empted. When you enable checkpoints, SageMaker resumes your Managed Spot Training jobs from the last checkpoint.
Once a Managed Spot Training job is completed, you can see the savings in the AWS Management Console and also calculate the cost savings as the percentage difference between the duration for which the training job ran and the duration for which you were billed. Regardless of how many times your Managed Spot Training jobs are interrupted, you are charged only once for the duration for which the data was downloaded.
Managed Spot Training can be used with all instances supported in SageMaker.

Managed Spot Training is supported in all Regions where SageMaker is currently available .

There are no fixed limits to the size of the dataset you can use for training models with SageMaker.

SageMaker includes built-in algorithms for linear regression, logistic regression, k-means clustering, principal component analysis, factorization machines, neural topic modeling, latent dirichlet allocation, gradient boosted trees, sequence2sequence, time-series forecasting, word2vec, and image classification. SageMaker also provides optimized Apache MXNet, Tensorflow, Chainer, PyTorch, Gluon, Keras, Horovod, Scikit-learn, and Deep Graph Library containers. In addition, SageMaker supports your custom training algorithms provided through a Docker image adhering to the documented specification.
Most ML algorithms expose a variety of parameters that control how the underlying algorithm operates. Those parameters are generally referred to as hyperparameters and their values affect the quality of the trained models. Automatic model tuning is the process of finding a set of hyperparameters for an algorithm that can yield an optimal model.
You can run automatic model tuning in SageMaker on top of any algorithm as long as it’s scientifically feasible, including built-in SageMaker algorithms, deep neural networks, or arbitrary algorithms you bring to SageMaker in the form of Docker images.

Not at this time. The best model tuning performance and experience is within SageMaker.

Currently, the algorithm for tuning hyperparameters is a customized implementation of Bayesian Optimization. It aims to optimize a customer-specified objective metric throughout the tuning process. Specifically, it checks the object metric of completed training jobs, and uses the knowledge to infer the hyperparameter combination for the next training job.

No. How certain hyperparameters impact the model performance depends on various factors, and it is hard to definitively say one hyperparameter is more important than the others and thus needs to be tuned. For built-in algorithms within SageMaker, we do call out whether or not a hyperparameter is tunable.

The length of time for a hyperparameter tuning job depends on multiple factors, including the size of the data, the underlying algorithm, and the values of the hyperparameters. Additionally, customers can choose the number of simultaneous training jobs and total number of training jobs. All these choices affect how long a hyperparameter tuning job can last.

Not at this time. Currently, you need to specify a single objective metric to optimize or change your algorithm code to emit a new metric, which is a weighted average between two or more useful metrics, and have the tuning process optimize towards that objective metric.

There is no charge for a hyperparameter tuning job itself. You will be charged by the training jobs that are launched by the hyperparameter tuning job, based on model training pricing .

SageMaker Autopilot automates everything in a typical ML workflow, including feature preprocessing, algorithm selection, and hyperparameter tuning, while specifically focusing on classification and regression use cases. Automatic Model Tuning, on the other hand, is designed to tune any model, no matter whether it is based on built-in algorithms, deep learning frameworks, or custom containers. In exchange for the flexibility, you have to manually pick the specific algorithm, hyperparameters to tune, and corresponding search ranges.

Reinforcement learning is a ML technique that enables an agent to learn in an interactive environment by trial and error using feedback from its own actions and experiences.

Yes, you can train reinforcement learning models in SageMaker in addition to supervised and unsupervised learning models.

Though both supervised and reinforcement learning use mapping between input and output, unlike supervised learning where the feedback provided to the agent is the correct set of actions for performing a task, reinforcement learning uses a delayed feedback where reward signals are optimized to ensure a long-term goal through a sequence of actions.

While the goal of supervised learning techniques is to find the right answer based on the patterns in the training data, the goal of unsupervised learning techniques is to find similarities and differences between data points. In contrast, the goal of reinforcement learning (RL) techniques is to learn how to achieve a desired outcome even when it is not clear how to accomplish that outcome. As a result, RL is more suited to enabling intelligent applications where an agent can make autonomous decisions such as robotics, autonomous vehicles, HVAC, industrial control, and more.

Amazon SageMaker RL supports a number of different environments for training RL models. You can use AWS services such as AWS RoboMaker, open-source environments or custom environments developed using Open AI Gym interfaces, or commercial simulation environments such as MATLAB and SimuLink.

No, SageMaker RL includes RL toolkits such as Coach and Ray RLLib that offer implementations of RL agent algorithms such as DQN, PPO, A3C, and many more.

Yes, you can bring your own RL libraries and algorithm implementations in Docker Containers and run those in SageMaker RL.

Yes. You can even select a heterogeneous cluster where the training can run on a GPU instance and the simulations can run on multiple CPU instances.

Deploy models

After you build and train models, SageMaker provides three options to deploy them so you can start making predictions. Real-time inference is suitable for workloads with millisecond latency requirements, payload sizes up to 6 MB, and processing times of up to 60 seconds. Batch transform is ideal for offline predictions on large batches of data that are available up front. Asynchronous inference is designed for workloads that do not have sub-second latency requirements, payload sizes up to 1 GB, and processing times of up to 15 minutes.
SageMaker Asynchronous Inference queues incoming requests and processes them asynchronously. This option is ideal for requests with large payload sizes and/or long processing times that need to be processed as they arrive. Optionally, you can configure auto-scaling settings to scale down the instance count to zero when not actively processing requests to save on costs.

You can scale down the SageMaker Asynchronous Inference endpoint instance count to zero in order to save on costs when you are not actively processing requests. You need to define a scaling policy that scales on the "ApproximateBacklogPerInstance" custom metric and set the "MinCapacity" value to zero. For step-by-step instructions, please visit the autoscale an asynchronous endpoint section of the developer guide. 

SageMaker Serverless Inference is a purpose-built serverless model serving option that makes it easy to deploy and scale ML models. SageMaker Serverless Inference endpoints automatically start the compute resources and scale them in and out depending on traffic, eliminating the need for you to choose instance type, run provisioned capacity, or manage scaling. You can optionally specify the memory requirements for your serverless inference endpoint. You pay only for the duration of running the inference code and the amount of data processed, not for idle periods.

SageMaker Serverless Inference simplifies the developer experience by eliminating the need to provision capacity up front and manage scaling policies. SageMaker Serverless Inference can scale instantly from tens to thousands of inferences within seconds based on the usage patterns, making it ideal for ML applications with intermittent or unpredictable traffic. For example, a chatbot service used by a payroll processing company experiences an increase in inquiries at the end of the month while for rest of the month traffic is intermittent. Provisioning instances for the entire month in such scenarios is not cost-effective, as you end up paying for idle periods. SageMaker Serverless Inference helps address these types of use cases by providing you automatic and fast scaling out of the box without the need for you to forecast traffic up front or manage scaling policies. Additionally, you pay only for the compute time to run your inference code (billed in milliseconds) and for data processing, making it a cost-effective option for workloads with intermittent traffic.
Provisioned Concurrency allows you to deploy models on serverless endpoints with predictable performance, and high scalability by keeping your endpoints warm for specified number of concurrent requests.

With on-demand serverless endpoints, if your endpoint does not receive traffic for a while and then your endpoint suddenly receives new requests, it can take some time for your endpoint to spin up the compute resources to process the requests. This is called a cold start. A cold start can also occur if your concurrent requests exceed the current concurrent request usage. The cold start time depends on your model size, how long it takes to download your model, and the start-up time of your container.

To reduce variability in your latency profile, you can optionally enable Provisioned Concurrency for your serverless endpoints. With Provisioned Concurrency, your serverless endpoints are always ready and can instantaneously serve bursts in traffic, without any cold starts.

As with on-demand Serverless Inference, when Provisioned Concurrency is enabled, you pay for the compute capacity used to process inference requests, billed by the millisecond, and the amount of data processed. You also pay for Provisioned Concurrency usage, based on the memory configured, duration provisioned, and amount of concurrency enabled. For more information, see Amazon SageMaker Pricing.

SageMaker helps you run shadow tests to evaluate a new ML model before production release by testing its performance against the currently deployed model. SageMaker deploys the new model in shadow mode alongside the current production model and mirrors a user-specified portion of the production traffic to the new model. It optionally logs the model inferences for offline comparison. It also provides a live dashboard with a comparison of key performance metrics, such as latency and error rate, between the production and shadow models to help you decide whether to promote the new model to production.
SageMaker simplifies the process of setting up and monitoring shadow variants so you can evaluate the performance of the new ML model on live production traffic. SageMaker eliminates the need for you to orchestrate infrastructure for shadow testing. It lets you control testing parameters such as the percentage of traffic mirrored to the shadow variant and the duration of the test. As a result, you can start small and increase the inference requests to the new model after you gain confidence in model performance. SageMaker creates a live dashboard displaying performance differences across key metrics, so you can easily compare model performance to evaluate how the new model differs from the production model.

SageMaker Inference Recommender  reduces the time required to get ML models in production by automating performance benchmarking and tuning model performance across SageMaker ML instances. You can now use SageMaker Inference Recommender to deploy your model to an endpoint that delivers the best performance and minimizes cost. You can get started with SageMaker Inference Recommender in minutes while selecting an instance type and get recommendations for optimal endpoint configurations within hours, eliminating weeks of manual testing and tuning time. With SageMaker Inference Recommender, you pay only for the SageMaker ML instances used during load testing, and there are no additional charges.

You should use SageMaker Inference Recommender if you need recommendations for the right endpoint configuration to improve performance and reduce costs. Previously, data scientists who wanted to deploy their models had to run manual benchmarks to select the right endpoint configuration. They had to first select the right ML instance type out of the 70+ available instance types based on the resource requirements of their models and sample payloads, and then optimize the model to account for differing hardware. Then, they had to conduct extensive load tests to validate that latency and throughput requirements are met and that the costs are low. SageMaker Inference Recommender eliminates this complexity by making it easy for you to: 1) get started in minutes with an instance recommendation; 2) conduct load tests across instance types to get recommendations on your endpoint configuration within hours; and 3) automatically tune container and model server parameters as well as perform model optimizations for a given instance type.
Data scientists can access SageMaker Inference Recommender from SageMaker Studio, AWS SDK for Python (Boto3), or AWS CLI. They can get deployment recommendations within SageMaker Studio in the SageMaker model registry for registered model versions. Data scientists can search and filter the recommendations through SageMaker Studio, AWS SDK, or AWS CLI.

No, we currently support only a single model per endpoint.

Currently we support only real-time endpoints.

We support all Regions supported by Amazon SageMaker, except the AWS China Regions.

Yes, we support all types of containers. Amazon EC2 Inf1, based on the AWS Inferentia chip, requires a compiled model artifact using either the Neuron compiler or Amazon SageMaker Neo. Once you have a compiled model for an Inferentia target and the associated container image URI, you can use SageMaker Inference Recommender to benchmark different Inferentia instance types.

SageMaker Model Monitor allows developers to detect and remediate concept drift. SageMaker Model Monitor automatically detects concept drift in deployed models and provides detailed alerts that help identify the source of the problem. All models trained in SageMaker automatically emit key metrics that can be collected and viewed in SageMaker Studio. From inside SageMaker Studio, you can configure data to be collected, how to view it, and when to receive alerts.

No. SageMaker operates the compute infrastructure on your behalf, allowing it to perform health checks, apply security patches, and do other routine maintenance. You can also deploy the model artifacts from training with custom inference code in your own hosting environment.

SageMaker hosting automatically scales to the performance needed for your application using Application Auto Scaling. In addition, you can manually change the instance number and type without incurring downtime by modifying the endpoint configuration.

SageMaker emits performance metrics to Amazon CloudWatch Metrics so you can track metrics, set alarms, and automatically react to changes in production traffic. In addition, SageMaker writes logs to Amazon CloudWatch Logs to let you monitor and troubleshoot your production environment.

SageMaker can host any model that adheres to the documented specification for inference Docker images. This includes models created from SageMaker model artifacts and inference code.

SageMaker is designed to scale to a large number of transactions per second. The precise number varies based on the deployed model and the number and type of instances to which the model is deployed.

As a fully managed service, Amazon SageMaker takes care of setting up and managing instances, software version compatibilities, and patching versions. It also provides built-in metrics and logs for endpoints that you can use to monitor and receive alerts. With SageMaker tools and guided workflows, the entire ML model packaging and deployment process is simplified, making it easy to optimize the endpoints to achieve desired performance and save costs. You can easily deploy your ML models including foundation models with just a few clicks within SageMaker Studio or using the new PySDK.

Batch Transform enables you to run predictions on large or small batch data. There is no need to break down the dataset into multiple chunks or manage real-time endpoints. With a simple API, you can request predictions for a large number of data records and transform the data quickly and easily.

SageMaker supports the following endpoint options: Single-model endpoints - One model on a container hosted on dedicated instances or serverless for low latency and high throughput. Multi-model endpoints - Host multiple models using shared infrastructure for cost-effectiveness and maximize utilization. You can control how much compute and memory each model can use to make sure each model has access to the resources it needs to run efficiently. Serial inference pipelines - Multiple containers sharing dedicated instances and executing in a sequence. You can use an inference pipeline to combine preprocessing, predictions, and post-processing data science tasks.
You can use scaling policies to automatically scale the underlying compute resources to accommodate fluctuations in inference requests. You can control scaling policies for each ML model separately to handle the changes in model usage easily, while also optimizing infrastructure costs.

SageMaker Edge Manager makes it easier to optimize, secure, monitor, and maintain ML models on fleets of edge devices such as smart cameras, robots, personal computers, and mobile devices. SageMaker Edge Manager helps ML developers operate ML models on a variety of edge devices at scale.

To get started with SageMaker Edge Manager, you need to compile and package your trained ML models in the cloud, register your devices, and prepare your devices with the SageMaker Edge Manager SDK. To prepare your model for deployment, SageMaker Edge Manager uses SageMaker Neo to compile your model for your target edge hardware. Once a model is compiled, SageMaker Edge Manager signs the model with an AWS generated key, then packages the model with its runtime and your necessary credentials to get it ready for deployment. On the device side, you register your device with SageMaker Edge Manager, download the SageMaker Edge Manager SDK, and then follow the instructions to install the SageMaker Edge Manager agent on your devices. The tutorial notebook provides a step-by-step example of how you can prepare the models and connect your models on edge devices with SageMaker Edge Manager.

SageMaker Edge Manager supports common CPU (ARM, x86) and GPU (ARM, Nvidia) based devices with Linux and Windows operating systems. Over time, SageMaker Edge Manager will expand to support more embedded processors and mobile platforms that are also supported by SageMaker Neo.

No, you do not. You can train your models elsewhere or use a pre-trained model from open source or from your model vendor.

Yes, you do. SageMaker Neo converts and compiles your models into an executable that you can then package and deploy on your edge devices. Once the model package is deployed, the SageMaker Edge Manager agent will unpack the model package and run the model on the device.

SageMaker Edge Manager stores the model package in your specified Amazon S3 bucket. You can use the over-the-air (OTA) deployment feature provided by AWS IoT Greengrass or any other deployment mechanism of your choice to deploy the model package from your S3 bucket to the devices.

Neo dlr is an open-source runtime that only runs models compiled by the SageMaker Neo service. Compared to the open source dlr, the SageMaker Edge Manager SDK includes an enterprise grade on-device agent with additional security, model management, and model serving features. The SageMaker Edge Manager SDK is suitable for production deployment at scale.

SageMaker Edge Manager is available in six Regions: US East (N. Virginia), US East (Ohio), US West (Oregon), EU (Ireland), EU (Frankfurt), and Asia Pacific (Tokyo). For details, see the AWS Regional Services list .

SageMaker Neo enables ML models to train once and run anywhere in the cloud and at the edge. SageMaker Neo automatically optimizes models built with popular DL frameworks that can be used to deploy on multiple hardware platforms. Optimized models run up to 25 times faster and consume less than a tenth of the resources of typical ML models.

To get started with SageMaker Neo, sign in to the SageMaker console, choose a trained model, follow the example to compile models, and deploy the resulting model onto your target hardware platform.

SageMaker Neo contains two major components: a compiler and a runtime. First, the SageMaker Neo compiler reads models exported by different frameworks. It then converts the framework-specific functions and operations into a framework-agnostic intermediate representation. Next, it performs a series of optimizations. Then, the compiler generates binary code for the optimized operations and writes them to a shared object library. The compiler also saves the model definition and parameters into separate files. During execution, the SageMaker Neo runtime loads the artifacts generated by the compiler—model definition, parameters, and the shared object library to run the model.

No. You can train models elsewhere and use SageMaker Neo to optimize them for SageMaker ML instances or AWS IoT Greengrass supported devices.

Currently, SageMaker Neo supports the most popular DL models that power computer vision applications and the most popular decision tree models used in SageMaker today. SageMaker Neo optimizes the performance of AlexNet, ResNet, VGG, Inception, MobileNet, SqueezeNet, and DenseNet models trained in MXNet and TensorFlow, and classification and random cut forest models trained in XGBoost.

You can find the lists of supported cloud instances , edge devices , and framework versions in the SageMaker Neo documentation.

To see a list of supported Regions, view the AWS Regional Services list .

Amazon SageMaker Savings Plans

SageMaker Savings Plans offer a flexible usage-based pricing model for SageMaker in exchange for a commitment to a consistent amount of usage (measured in $/hour) for a one- or three-year term. SageMaker Savings Plans provide the most flexibility and help to reduce your costs by up to 64%. These plans automatically apply to eligible SageMaker ML instance usages, including SageMaker Studio notebooks, SageMaker On-Demand notebooks, SageMaker Processing, SageMaker Data Wrangler, SageMaker Training, SageMaker Real-Time Inference, and SageMaker Batch Transform regardless of instance family, size, or Region. For example, you can change usage from a CPU instance ml.c5.xlarge running in US East (Ohio) to an ml.Inf1 instance in US West (Oregon) for inference workloads at any time and automatically continue to pay the Savings Plans price.
If you have a consistent amount of SageMaker instance usage (measured in $/hour) and use multiple SageMaker components or expect your technology configuration (such as instance family, or Region) to change over time, SageMaker Savings Plans make it simpler to maximize your savings while providing flexibility to change the underlying technology configuration based on application needs or new innovation. The Savings Plans rate applies automatically to all eligible ML instance usage with no manual modifications required.
You can get started with Savings Plans from AWS Cost Explorer in the AWS Management Console or by using the API/CLI. You can easily make a commitment to Savings Plans by using the recommendations provided in AWS Cost Explorer to realize the biggest savings. The recommended hourly commitment is based on your historical On-Demand usage and your choice of plan type, term length, and payment option. Once you sign up for a Savings Plan, your compute usage will automatically be charged at the discounted Savings Plans prices and any usage beyond your commitment will be charged at regular On-Demand rates.
The difference between Savings Plans for SageMaker and Savings Plans for Amazon EC2 is in the services they include. SageMaker Savings Plans apply only to SageMaker ML Instance usage.

Savings Plans can be purchased in any account within an AWS Organization/Consolidated Billing family. By default, the benefit provided by Savings Plans is applicable to usage across all accounts within an AWS Organization/Consolidated Billing family. However, you can also choose to restrict the benefit of Savings Plans to only the account that purchased them.