AWS Compute Blog

Building a GPU workstation for visual effects with AWS

Contributed by Mike Owen, Solutions Architect, AWS Thinkbox

The elasticity, scalability, and cost effectiveness of the cloud value proposition is attractive to media customers. One of the key design patterns in media and entertainment (M&E) workloads is using the cloud as a content lake and bringing the underlying processes closer without having to synchronize data. In this high-end graphics visualization business, a pixel-perfect, color-accurate, fully interactive native desktop experience is required for both Windows and Linux platforms. Visual effects (VFX) artists also require input peripherals such as latest-generation Wacom 8K pressure-sensitive tablets and Wacom Cintiq monitors to work as seamlessly as they do on-premises.

AWS offers Amazon EC2 G3 instances backed by NVIDIA Tesla M60 GPUs with powerful graphics capabilities: OpenGL 4.6, DirectX 12, CUDA 9.2, GRID 6.1. You can combine these instances with the Teradici streaming protocol via their Cloud Access Software (CAS) agent to enable a high-end desktop experience on either Windows or Linux with an on-demand pricing model to fit your business needs. Teradici PCoIP is a popular protocol in the M&E industry, where Teradici have delivered a custom silicon accelerated zero-client hardware device to deliver secure pixel streaming to on-premises monitors. AWS also enables customers to create managed virtual desktop environments with Amazon WorkSpaces Graphics bundles (Windows and Linux) or Amazon AppStream 2.0 (Windows). Both solutions offer a managed environment with GPU-backed instances. This blog describes how you can set up an unmanaged VFX desktop using Amazon EC2 G3 instances combined with high-performance storage and scalable compute options such as Amazon EC2 Spot Instances.


The following diagram describes a typical Windows and Linux configuration. In this setup, you use a Teradici PCoIP Zero Client over a dedicated network connection from your on-premises location via your chosen network provider to their nearest AWS Region containing an Amazon EC2 G3 instance. AWS Direct Connect provides a low-latency, high-bandwidth dedicated connection that doesn’t traverse the public internet. With the Windows instance, you might use a creative pen display such as a Wacom Cintiq monitor or, on a Linux instance, the latest generation of Wacom 8K pressure-sensitive tablets. You can connect both types of environments to dual 2K monitors and be ready for film VFX work.

Once built, the g3.4xl instance runs your custom Amazon Machine Image (AMI) with encrypted volume(s) in Amazon Elastic Block Storage (EBS) containing all your software, pulling floating licenses from your on-premises license servers where necessary. For Linux, you have the option of centrally installing your software via a fast NVMe SSD–based i3 instance type and building a minimal-sized boot AMI. In both cases, you can add encrypted Amazon EBS SSD volumes for increased local storage. The Teradici CAS agent runs on each individual G3 instance and can be provisioned, brokered, and managed by the optional Teradici Cloud Access Manager (CAM) solution. Finally, Amazon WorkSpaces Graphics bundles are compatible with a Teradici zero client, providing easy access to a fully managed Windows desktop. This might be useful for Linux-based studios that require ad hoc Windows usage such as Adobe Creative Cloud.

In this configuration, a Teradici zero client interacts with the provisioned desktop (served on a G3 instance) in the cloud. The Teradici CAS agent captures the frame buffer and sends it in real time to the zero client over the network via UDP using the PCoIP protocol. A smooth, reliable experience depends on a low-latency and high-bandwidth connection to the Amazon EC2 instance hosting the desktop. Bandwidth requirements depend on the number of monitors used, resolution, frame rate, and lossless quality of the desktop experience. For Wacom tablet support, Teradici CAS 2.12 requires the latency level to be less than 25 ms. You can use or to check the latency time of public pings between your location and your closest AWS Region. Ideally, you will provision an AWS Direct Connect connection for private (doesn’t traverse the public internet) and fast (low-latency) connectivity to the AWS Region from your location. You can also use a public internet connection for initial testing. In both cases, you can route traffic over a VPN for added security.


Instead of doing a manual build, you can visit the AWS Marketplace and subscribe to a Teradici-provided pre-built AMI. It already has the NVIDIA GRID driver and Teradici CAS software installed, configured, and licensed as part of the overall usage cost. See the following offerings on AWS Marketplace:


Make sure that everything in the following list is in place before deploying to either platform:

  • Create an AWS account.
  • Ensure that your AWS account has an EC2 key-pair associated with it by going to the AWS Management Console and checking Key Pairs under Network and Security in the applicable AWS Region.
  • Set up an AWS account <ACCESS KEY> and <SECRET ACCESS KEY> to access the NVIDIA GRID driver from an Amazon S3 bucket. The deployment instructions explain how to install and set up the AWS Command-Line Interface (AWS CLI).
  • Minimum version: CentOS 7.2 or Windows 2016.
  • Recommended Teradici PCoIP Zero Client firmware version: 6.0. Contact Teradici to download.
  • Contact Teradici who will provide a 60-day trial license: <TERADICI LICENSE CODE> for Cloud Access Software. You should receive your license within 1 business day. If you don’t receive your license, please contact
  • You must have superuser (root) or Administrator privileges to the AMI.
  • The Amazon EC2 security group provides a stateful firewall on each instance via a set of rules. The following inbound ports must be available on the Amazon EC2 instance from a specific client’s source IP address (restrictive access).
Type Protocol Port Range Source Description Platform
Custom TCP Rule TCP 4172 <YOUR SOURCE IP> PCoIP Both
Custom UDP Rule UDP 4172 <YOUR SOURCE IP> PCoIP Both
Custom TCP Rule TCP 60443 <YOUR SOURCE IP> PCoIP Both
RDP TCP 3389 <YOUR SOURCE IP> RDP Windows only

Deploying the desktop on Linux

For our Linux deployment, we use the latest CentOS 7.5 AMI from AWS Marketplace and install the NVIDIA/Xorg/KDE/Wacom stack to create a fully functioning VFX Linux desktop environment. This stack contains the following components:

  • CentOS 7.5.1804_2 AMI
  • NVIDIA Grid 6.1 (390.57 May 2018) driver
  • Teradici CAS 2.12
  • Wacom 0.40 driver

Feel free to use your own CentOS 7.2+ AMI and modify the step by step instructions accordingly.

Setting up the desktop on Linux

To launch a g3.4xl instance in the closest AWS Region in your AWS account using the created key-pair and security group, use an AMI ID from the ones in the following table. For reference, search for the AMI using the keywords CentOS Linux 7 x86_64 HVM EBS 1804_2.

AWS Region AWS Region ID AMI ID
US East (N. Virginia) us-east-1 ami-d5bf2caa
US East (Ohio) us-east-2 ami-77724e12
US West (N. California) us-west-1 ami-3b89905b
US West (Oregon) us-west-2 ami-5490ed2c
EU (Frankfurt) eu-central-1 ami-9a183671
EU (Ireland) eu-west-1 ami-4c457735
Asia Pacific (Tokyo) ap-northeast-1 ami-3185744e
Asia Pacific (Singapore) ap-southeast-1 ami-da6151a6
Asia Pacific (Sydney) ap-southeast-2 ami-0d13c26f

Once the g3.4xl instance has passed its EC2 instance 2/2 status checks, we can build in true AWS style.

First, log in to the instance and set up the environment.

# ssh into running Amazon EC2 instance
ssh centos@ec2-<IP-ADDRESS>.<AWS-REGION>
# yes

# set a password for your user
sudo passwd centos

# disable selinux
sudo sed -ir 's/SELINUX=\(disabled\|enforcing\|permissive\)/SELINUX=disabled/' /etc/selinux/config

# install the EPEL repository
sudo yum install wget -y
sudo wget
sudo rpm -i epel-release-latest-7.noarch.rpm

# run yum update to make sure all packages are up-to-date
sudo yum update -y

# install the "Server with GUI" group
sudo yum groupinstall "Server with GUI" -y

# prefer KDE desktop? (optional)
sudo yum groupinstall -y "KDE Plasma Workspaces"
sudo systemctl set-default
echo "exec startkde" >> ~/.xinitrc

# uninstall KDE (optional)
# sudo yum groupremove -y "KDE Plasma Workspaces"
# sudo yum autoremove -y
# sudo reboot

# reboot to make sure the latest installed kernel is running
sudo reboot

# install kernel-devel
sudo yum install kernel-devel -y

Next, install and register the Teradici CAS 2.12 software.

# import the Teradici signing key
sudo rpm --import

# grab the PCoIP repo file
sudo curl -o /etc/yum.repos.d/pcoip.repo

# install PCoIP agent package
sudo yum install pcoip-agent-graphics -y

# load vhci-hcd kernel modules
sudo modprobe -a usb-vhci-hcd usb-vhci-iocifc

# register with the licensing service
pcoip-register-host --registration-code=<TERADICI LICENSE CODE>

# set up PCoIP agent config to enable USB
echo """pcoip.grid_diff_map = 0 pcoip.enable_usb = 1 pcoip.usb_auth_table = "23XXXXXX" pcoip.usb_unauth_table = "" """ | sudo tee /etc/pcoip-agent/pcoip-agent.conf

# make sure you're running latest pcoip-agent version
sudo yum update pcoip-agent-graphics

Then install the NVIDIA GRID graphics driver and apply performance optimization to its configuration.

# NVIDIA GRID driver

# install nano editor
sudo yum install nano -y

# remove any old NVIDIA drivers/CUDA
sudo yum erase nvidia cuda

# disable the nouveau open source driver for NVIDIA graphics cards
sudo touch /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist.conf

# paste the following lines in one go into your shell
cat << EOF | sudo tee --append /etc/modprobe.d/blacklist.conf
blacklist vga16fb
blacklist nouveau
blacklist rivafb
blacklist nvidiafb
blacklist rivatv

# edit the /etc/default/grub file and add the line:
sudo nano /etc/default/grub

# rebuild grub2 config
sudo grub2-mkconfig -o /boot/grub2/grub.cfg
sudo reboot

# install pip
curl -O
python --user

# install AWS CLI
pip install awscli --upgrade --user

# configure AWS CLI credentials
aws configure

# AWS Access Key ID [None]: <ACCESS KEY>
# AWS Secret Access Key [None]: <SECRET ACCESS KEY>
# Default Region name [None]: <AWS REGION>
# Default output format [None]: <enter>

# 390.57 driver
aws s3 cp --recursive s3://ec2-linux-nvidia-drivers/latest/ .
chmod +x

sudo /bin/bash ./

# respond to the NVIDIA installer prompts as follows:
    # <accept> the EULA
    # <Yes> to register kernel module sources with DKMS
    # <No> to installing 32-bit libraries
    # <No> to modifying the file at end of install
    # <OK> to complete the installer

# check driver installed
nvidia-smi -q | head

# g3/NVIDIA optimization settings
sudo nvidia-persistenced
sudo nvidia-smi --auto-boost-default=0
sudo nvidia-smi -ac 2505,1177

sudo reboot

Install CUDA if required by any of your VFX software such as Autodesk Maya or SideFX Houdini:

# install CUDA and OpenCL

mv cuda_9.2.88_396.26_linux

# don't install the actual graphics driver, just CUDA 9.2 toolkit, sym-link
sudo /bin/sh

Do you accept the previously read EULA?
accept/decline/quit: accept

Install NVIDIA Accelerated Graphics Driver for Linux-x86_64 396.26?
(y)es/(n)o/(q)uit: n

Install the CUDA 9.2 Toolkit?
(y)es/(n)o/(q)uit: y

Enter Toolkit Location
[ default is /usr/local/cuda-9.2 ]: 

Do you want to install a symbolic link at /usr/local/cuda?
(y)es/(n)o/(q)uit: y

Install the CUDA 9.2 Samples?
(y)es/(n)o/(q)uit: n

Installing the CUDA Toolkit in /usr/local/cuda-9.2 ...

# CUDA Patch 1 (Released May 16, 2018)
mv cuda_9.2.88.1_linux
sudo /bin/sh

# Ensure these ENV VARs are present: /etc/profile.d
export PATH=/usr/local/cuda-9.2/bin${PATH:+:${PATH}}
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/local/cuda-9.2/lib64${LD_LIBRARY_PATH:+:${LD_LIBRARY_PATH}}

Finally, install Wacom drivers.

# install Wacom driver
cd ~
tar jxf input-wacom-0.40.0.tar.bz2
cd input-wacom-0.40.0
sudo su
make && make install
modprobe wacom
dracut --force
sudo touch /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/99-wacom-pressure2k.conf

# edit Wacom conf file as follows
sudo nano /etc/X11/xorg.conf.d/99-wacom-pressure2k.conf

Section "InputClass"
    Identifier "Wacom pressure compatibility"
    MatchDriver "wacom"
    Option "Pressure2K" "true"

# check Elastic Network Adapter (ENA) is running on your instance
modinfo ena
ethtool -i eth0
aws ec2 describe-images --image-id <AMI-ID> --query 'Images[].EnaSupport'

# if that command returns false, proceed to enable it
# make sure that you have AWS CLI installed with AWS credentials on your local machine
sudo shutdown now
aws ec2 modify-instance-attribute --instance-id <CURRENT EC2 INSTANCE ID> --ena-support

# if you're using a pre-existing Linux AMI, you need to install the ENA driver yourself

sudo reboot

Deploying the desktop on Windows

We use the latest AWS-provided Windows 2016 AMI for our deployment and install the NVIDIA/Teradici/Wacom stack to create a fully functioning VFX Windows desktop environment. This stack contains the following components:

  • Windows Server 2016 Base 2018.04.11
  • NVIDIA Grid 6.1 (391.58 May 2018) driver
  • Teradici CAS 2.12
  • Latest Wacom driver

Feel free to use your own Windows 2016 AMI and modify the step by step instructions accordingly.

Windows Instructions

To launch a g3.4xl instance in the closest AWS Region in your AWS account using the created key-pair and security group, use an AMI ID from the ones in the following table. For reference, the AMI name is Microsoft Windows Server 2016 Base 2018.04.11.

AWS Region AWS Region ID AMI ID
US East (N. Virginia) us-east-1 ami-3633b149
US East (Ohio) us-east-2 ami-5984b43c
US West (N. California) us-west-1 ami-3dd1c25d
US West (Oregon) us-west-2 ami-f3dcbc8b
EU (Frankfurt) eu-central-1 ami-b5530b5e
EU (Ireland) eu-west-1 ami-4cc09a35
Asia Pacific (Tokyo) ap-northeast-1 ami-0e809272
Asia Pacific (Singapore) ap-southeast-1 ami-00a2847c
Asia Pacific (Sydney) ap-southeast-2 ami-7279b010

Once the g3.4xl instance has passed its Amazon EC2 instance 2/2 status checks, let’s go build:

# use AWS Management Console to right-click EC2 instance and "Get Windows Password" -> <RDP PASSWORD>

# RDP into machine
# address: ec2-<IP-ADDRESS>.<AWS-REGION>
# username: Administrator
# password: <RDP PASSWORD>

# set a password in command prompt
net user Administrator <NEW PASSWORD>

# configure Powershell - Allow ExecutionPolicy of Powershell scripts
Set-ExecutionPolicy -ExecutionPolicy AllSigned

# enable Software Secure Attention Sequence (SAS) setting
Open gpedit.msc
Expand Computer Configuration > Administrative Templates > Windows Components
Select Windows Logon Options
Double-click Disable or enable software Secure Attention Sequence
Select Enabled
Select Services from the drop down list in the bottom left pane
Click OK

# install AWS CLI
# download and install:

# configure AWS CLI credentials in Powershell
aws configure

# AWS Access Key ID [None]: <ACCESS KEY>
# AWS Secret Access Key [None]: <SECRET ACCESS KEY>
# Default Region name [None]: <AWS REGION>
# Default output format [None]: <enter>

# download NVIDIA GRID driver from Amazon S3
# right-click Powershell, Run As Administrator, paste following into Powershell

$Bucket = "ec2-windows-nvidia-drivers"
$KeyPrefix = "latest"
$LocalPath = "C:\Users\Administrator\Desktop\NVIDIA"
$Objects = Get-S3Object -BucketName $Bucket -KeyPrefix $KeyPrefix -Region us-east-1
foreach ($Object in $Objects) {
    $LocalFileName = $Object.Key
    if ($LocalFileName -ne '' -and $Object.Size -ne 0) {
        $LocalFilePath = Join-Path $LocalPath $LocalFileName
        Copy-S3Object -BucketName $Bucket -Key $Object.Key -LocalFile $LocalFilePath -Region us-east-1

# run NVIDIA GRID installer

# reboot machine via command prompt
cmd shutdown /r

# Optimize GPU settings (follow these instructions)

# via Powershell
cd "C:\Program Files\NVIDIA Corporation\NVSMI"
.\nvidia-smi --auto-boost-default=0
.\nvidia-smi -ac "2505,1177"

# go to, create account, and request access from Teradici via support ticket
# download Teradici PCoIP CAS software: PCoIP Graphics Agent 2.12 for Windows or later

# install PCoIP graphics agent package via GUI based installer
enter <TERADICI LICENSE CODE> via GUI installer
reboot machine

# download and install latest Wacom drivers from Wacom website

# double-check the Elastic Network Adapter (ENA) is running
# ensure you have AWS CLI installed with AWS credentials on your local machine
aws ec2 describe-instances --instance-ids <CURRENT EC2 INSTANCE ID> --query "Reservations[].Instances[].EnaSupport"

# if the check returns false, install ENA drivers

# if you're using a pre-existing Windows AMI, you need to install the ENA driver yourself

Validating the desktop

Finally, take your new Linux or Windows VFX workstation for a spin. Using a zero client:

# connect Wacom tablet to zero-client and start a PCoIP session...
# ensure you configure zero-client to connect via:
# “Auto-Detect” in local z/c connection settings

# install any other software you need...

# don't forget to configure your floating license servers...

# finally, create a new AMI to capture your new custom VFX workstation image in your account

Teradici provides a software client for Windows and macOS that you can use to validate the setup of your Windows or Linux desktop. It’s also handy for system administrators who need to access a graphics workstation for artist technical support.

Testing the desktop

For testing, let’s run Autodesk 3ds Max on Windows and Autodesk Maya on Linux.

In 3ds Max, we have a 35-million-poly scene from the GPU-accelerated renderer Redshift, fully interactive and able to use the NVIDIA card to perform CUDA-based GPU final rendering.

In Maya, we show the 16 vCPUs and 120 GB of RAM available to this 3D scene file. The file takes 10 minutes to final render at HD resolution on a g3.4xl instance or, if you decide to offload the CUDA rendering to the Amazon EC2 P3.16xl instance type, just 19 seconds!


The Amazon EC2 G3 instance type is purpose-built to provide a high-end professional graphics infrastructure for visual computing applications. With remote protocols like Teradici PCoIP, G3 instances are the next-generation VFX cloud desktops that can deliver outstanding performance. With many studios already taking advantage of elastic cloud scaling for rendering, now is a great time to deploy cloud desktops for your business.