Amazon Redshift pricing options include:
- On-Demand pricing: no upfront costs - you simply pay an hourly rate based on the type and number of nodes in your cluster.
- Amazon Redshift Spectrum pricing: enables you to run SQL queries directly against all of your data, out to exabytes, in Amazon S3 - you simply pay for the number of bytes scanned.
- Concurrency Scaling pricing: provides consistently fast performance, even with thousands of concurrent queries and users. Each cluster earns up to one hour of free concurrency scaling credits per day, which is sufficient for most customers. You simply pay a per-second on-demand rate for usage that exceeds the free credits.
- Reserved Instance pricing: enables you to save up to 75% over On-Demand rates by committing to using Redshift for a 1 or 3 year term.
Amazon Redshift Dense Storage (DS) node types enable you to create large data warehouses using hard disk drives (HDDs) for a low price point. Dense Compute (DC) node types enable you to create high performance data warehouses using solid-state disks (SSDs). If you have less than 500GB of data, your most cost-effective and highest performance option is Dense Compute node types. Above 500GB, if your primary focus is performance, you can continue with Dense Compute node types up to hundreds of compressed terabytes for $5,500/TB/Year (3 Year Partial Upfront Reserved Instance pricing). If you want to reduce costs or need to scale further, you can switch to our larger, more cost-effective Dense Storage node types, and scale to over a petabyte of compressed data for under $1,000/TB/Year (3 Year Partial Upfront Reserved Instance pricing). Scaling your cluster or switching between node types requires a single API call or a few clicks in the AWS Console.
Amazon Redshift On-Demand pricing allows you to pay for capacity by the hour with no commitments and no upfront costs - you simply pay an hourly rate based on the type and number of nodes in your cluster. This frees you from planning and purchasing data warehouse capacity ahead of your needs, and enables you to cost-effectively spin up and tear down environments for development or test purposes.
Calculating Your Effective Price per TB per Year for On-Demand
For On-Demand, the effective price per TB per year is the hourly price for the instance, times the number of hours in a year, divided by the number of TB per instance.
Redshift Spectrum Pricing
Amazon Redshift Spectrum allows you to directly run SQL queries against exabytes of data in Amazon S3. You are charged for the number of bytes scanned by Redshift Spectrum, rounded up to the next megabyte, with a 10MB minimum per query. There are no charges for Data Definition Language (DDL) statements like CREATE/ALTER/DROP TABLE, statements for managing partitions, and failed queries.
You can improve query performance and reduce costs by storing data in a compressed, partitioned, columnar data format. If you compress data using one of Redshift Spectrum’s supported formats, your costs will go down as there is less data scanned. Similarly, if you store data in a columnar format, such as Parquet or ORC, your charges will also go down as Redshift Spectrum scans only the columns needed by the query.
Amazon Redshift Spectrum is available in the following AWS Regions: US East (N. Virginia, Ohio), US West (Oregon, N. California), Canada (Central), South America (Sao Paulo), EU (Frankfurt, Ireland, London), Asia Pacific (Mumbai, Seoul, Singapore, Sydney, Tokyo).
Price per Redshift Spectrum Query
With Redshift Spectrum, you are billed at $5 per terabyte of data scanned, rounded up to the next megabyte, with a 10 megabyte minimum per query. For example, if you scan 10 gigabytes of data, you will be charged $0.05. If you scan 1 terabyte of data, you will be charged $5.
You are charged Amazon Redshift instance rates for the cluster used and standard Amazon S3 rates for storage and requests.
If you use the AWS Glue Data Catalog with Amazon Redshift Spectrum, you are charged standard AWS Glue Data Catalog rates. For details, refer to AWS Glue pricing.
When using Amazon Redshift Spectrum to query AWS Key Management Service (KMS) encrypted data in Amazon S3, you are charged standard AWS KMS rates. For details, refer to AWS KMS pricing.
Redshift Spectrum Pricing Examples
Consider a table with 100 equally sized columns stored in Amazon S3 as an uncompressed text file with a total size of 4 terabytes. Running a query to get data from a single column of the table requires Redshift Spectrum to scan the entire file, because text formats cannot be split. This query would scan 4 terabytes and cost $20. ($5/TB * 4TB = $20)
If you compress your file using GZIP, you may see 4:1 compression gains. In this case, you would have a compressed file size of 1 terabyte. Redshift Spectrum has to scan the entire file, but since it is one-fourth the size, you pay one-fourth the cost, or $5. ($5/TB * 1TB = $5)
If you compress your file and convert it to a columnar format like Apache Parquet, you may see 4:1 compression gains and have a compressed file size of 1 terabyte. Using the same query as above, Redshift Spectrum needs to scan only one column in the Parquet file. The cost of this query would be $0.05. ($5/TB * 1TB file size * 1/100 columns, or a total of 10 gigabytes scanned = $0.05).
Concurrency Scaling Pricing
Amazon Redshift automatically adds transient capacity to provide consistently fast performance, even with thousands of concurrent users and queries. There are no resources to manage, no upfront costs, and you are not charged for the startup or shutdown time of the transient clusters. With free concurrency scaling credits that are sufficient for most customers' concurrency needs, Amazon Redshift allows you to scale with minimal cost-impact and with predictability in your month-to-month cost, even during periods of fluctuating analytical demand. You are charged the per-second on-demand rate for a transient cluster used in excess of the free credits - only when it's serving your queries - with a one-minute minimum charge each time a Concurrency Scaling cluster is activated. The per-second on-demand rate is based on the type and number of nodes in your Amazon Redshift cluster.
Concurrency Scaling credits
Amazon Redshift clusters earn up to one hour of free Concurrency Scaling credits per day. Credits are earned on an hourly basis for each active cluster in your AWS account. You can accumulate up to 30 hours of free Concurrency Scaling credits for each active cluster. Credits do not expire as long as your cluster is not terminated.
Pricing example for Concurrency Scaling
A 10 DC2.8XL node Redshift cluster in the US-East costs $48 per hour. Consider a scenario where two transient clusters are utilized for five minutes beyond the free Concurrency Scaling credits. The per-second on-demand rate for Concurrency Scaling is $48 * 1/3600 = $0.013 per second. The additional cost for Concurrency Scaling in this case is $0.013 per second * 300 seconds * 2 transient clusters = $8. Therefore, the total cost of the Amazon Redshift cluster and the two transient clusters in this case is $56.
Reserved Instance Pricing
Reserved Instances (a.k.a. Reserved Nodes) are appropriate for steady-state production workloads, and offer significant discounts over On-Demand pricing. Customers typically purchase Reserved Instances after running experiments and Proofs-of-Concept to validate production configurations.
You can save up to 75% over On-Demand rates by committing to use Amazon Redshift for a 1 or 3 year term. Reserved Instance pricing is specific to the node type purchased, and remains in effect until the reservation term ends. Prices include two additional copies of data - one on the cluster nodes and one in Amazon S3. We take care of backup, durability, availability, security, monitoring, and maintenance for you.
No Upfront – You pay nothing upfront, and commit to pay hourly over the course of one year at a 20% discount over On-Demand. This option is only offered for a one year term.
Partial Upfront – The same as our previous Heavy Utilization Reserved Instance offering. You pay a portion of the Reserved Instance upfront, and the remainder over a one or three year term. The discount over On-Demand is up to 41% for a one year term and up to 73% for a three year term.
All Upfront – You pay for the entire Reserved Instance term (one or three years) with one upfront payment. This is your cheapest option, with a discount of up to 42% for a one year term and up to 75% for a three year term compared to On-Demand.
Reserved Instances are a billing concept and are not used to create data warehouse clusters. When you make a purchase, you will be charged the associated upfront and hourly fees even if you are not currently running a cluster. To purchase Reserved Instances, visit the Reserved Nodes tab in our Console.
* The Monthly rate below is the actual hourly rate multiplied by the average number of hours per month.
** The Effective Hourly rate below is the amortized hourly cost of the instance over the entire term, including any upfront payment.
Calculating Your Effective Price per TB per Year for Reserved Instances
For Reserved Instances, you add the upfront payment to the hourly rate times the number of hours in the term, and divide by the number of years in the term and number of TB per node.
Backup storage is the storage associated with your automated and manual snapshots for your data warehouse. Increasing your backup retention period or taking additional snapshots increases the backup storage consumed by your data warehouse. There is no additional charge for backup storage up to 100% of your provisioned storage for an active data warehouse cluster. For example, if you have an active single XL node cluster with 2TB of storage, we will provide up to 2TB-Month of backup storage at no additional charge. Backup storage beyond the provisioned storage size and backups stored after your cluster is terminated are billed at standard Amazon S3 rates.
There is no charge for data transferred between Amazon Redshift and Amazon S3 within the same AWS Region for backup, restore, load, and unload operations. For all other data transfers into and out of Amazon Redshift, you will be billed at standard AWS data transfer rates. In particular, if you run your Amazon Redshift cluster in Amazon VPC, you will see standard AWS data transfer charges for data transfers over JDBC/ODBC to your Amazon Redshift cluster endpoint. In addition, when you use Enhanced VPC Routing and unload data to Amazon S3 in a different region, you will incur standard AWS data transfer charges. For more information about AWS data transfer rates, see the Amazon EC2 pricing page.