Amazon Redshift costs less to operate than any other data warehouse. Start small at $0.25 per hour and scale up to petabytes of data and thousands of concurrent users. Choose what is right for your business needs, with the ability to grow storage without over-provisioning compute, and the flexibility to grow compute capacity without increasing storage costs.
What to expect
First, find the best cluster configuration for your needs with the sizing calculator in the Amazon Redshift console. If things change, you can easily scale your cluster or switch between node types with a single API call or a few clicks in the Amazon Redshift console.
You’ll see on-demand pricing before making your selection, and later you may choose to purchase reserved nodes for significant discounts.
Amazon Redshift node types
Redshift managed storage uses a variety of advanced data management techniques to optimize how efficiently data is offloaded to and retrieved from Amazon S3. In addition, RA3 nodes are built on the AWS Nitro System for high performance and enhanced security. These nodes feature fast, next generation CPUs, large local solid-state drives (SSD), and high bandwidth networking to deliver optimal performance at peak loads.
DC2 nodes enable you to create compute intensive data warehouses with local SSD storage. You choose the number of nodes you need based on data size and performance requirements. If you have less than 10TBs of data, we recommend DC2 node types for the best performance at the lowest price. If you expect your data to grow rapidly, we recommend using RA3 nodes.
DS2 nodes enable you to create large data warehouses using hard disk drives (HDDs) for a low price point. For most workloads we recommend exploring RA3 or DC2 nodes before choosing DS2 nodes. If you use more than 3 nodes of DS2.8xl today, you can migrate to RA3.16xl nodes and get up to 2x performance and 2x more storage for the same on-demand compute cost as DS2.
The Redshift Console provides a pricing calculator and information to help you select the best node type, and you can always scale your cluster or switch between node types with a single API call or a few clicks in the Console.
Redshift capabilities with pay-as-you-go pricing
- Amazon Redshift Spectrum pricing: enables you to run SQL queries directly against the data in your S3 data lake, out to exabytes - you simply pay for the number of bytes scanned.
- Concurrency Scaling pricing: each cluster earns up to one hour of free concurrency scaling credits per day, which is sufficient for 97% of customers. This enables you to provide consistently fast performance, even with thousands of concurrent queries and users. You simply pay a per-second on-demand rate for usage that exceeds the free credits.
- Redshift managed storage pricing: gives you the flexibility to pay only for the data that you store in RA3 clusters independent of number of compute nodes provisioned. You simply pay hourly for the total amount of data in managed storage.
Amazon Redshift on-demand pricing allows you to pay for capacity by the hour with no commitments and no upfront costs, you simply pay an hourly rate based on the type and number of nodes in your cluster. This frees you from planning and purchasing data warehouse capacity ahead of your needs, and enables you to cost-effectively spin up and tear down environments for development or test purposes.
*Total addressable storage capacity in the managed storage with each RA3 node.
Calculating your effective price per TB per year for on-demand
For On-Demand, the effective price per TB per year is the hourly price for the instance, times the number of hours in a year, divided by the number of TB per instance. For RA3, data stored in managed storage is billed separately based on actual data stored in the RA3 node types; effective price per TB per year is calculated for only the compute node costs.
Redshift Spectrum pricing
Amazon Redshift Spectrum allows you to directly run SQL queries against exabytes of data in Amazon S3. You are charged for the number of bytes scanned by Redshift Spectrum, rounded up to the next megabyte, with a 10MB minimum per query. There are no charges for Data Definition Language (DDL) statements like CREATE/ALTER/DROP TABLE statements for managing partitions, and failed queries.
You can improve query performance and reduce costs by storing data in a compressed, partitioned, columnar data format. If you compress data using one of Redshift Spectrum’s supported formats, your costs will go down because less data is scanned. Similarly, if you store data in a columnar format, such as Parquet or ORC, your charges will also go down because Redshift Spectrum only scans columns needed by the query.
With Amazon Redshift Spectrum, you are billed per terabyte of data scanned, rounded up to the next megabyte, with a 10 megabyte minimum per query. For example, if you scan 10 gigabytes of data, you will be charged $0.05. If you scan 1 terabyte of data, you will be charged $5.00.
You are charged for the Amazon Redshift cluster used to query data with Redshift Spectrum. Redshift Spectrum queries data directly in Amazon S3. You are charged standard S3 rates for storing objects in your S3 buckets, and for requests made against your S3 buckets. For details, refer to Amazon S3 rates.
If you use the AWS Glue Data Catalog with Amazon Redshift Spectrum, you are charged standard AWS Glue Data Catalog rates. For details, refer to AWS Glue pricing.
When using Amazon Redshift Spectrum to query AWS Key Management Service (KMS) encrypted data in Amazon S3, you are charged standard AWS KMS rates. For details, refer to AWS KMS pricing.
Redshift Spectrum pricing examples based on US East (N.Virginia) price
Consider a table with 100 equally sized columns stored in Amazon S3 as an uncompressed text file with a total size of 4 terabytes. Running a query to get data from a single column of the table requires Redshift Spectrum to scan the entire file, because text formats cannot be split. This query would scan 4 terabytes and cost $20. ($5/TB * 4TB = $20)
If you compress your file using GZIP, you may see a 4:1 compression ratio. In this case, you would have a compressed file size of 1 terabyte. Redshift Spectrum has to scan the entire file, but since it is one-fourth the size, you pay one-fourth the cost, or $5. ($5/TB * 1TB = $5)
If you compress your file and convert it to a columnar format like Apache Parquet, you may see a 4:1 compression ratio and have a compressed file size of 1 terabyte. Using the same query as above, Redshift Spectrum needs to scan only one column in the Parquet file. The cost of this query would be $0.05. ($5/TB * 1TB file size * 1/100 columns, or a total of 10 gigabytes scanned = $0.05).
Note: The above pricing examples are for illustration purposes only. The compression ratio of different files and columns may vary.
Concurrency Scaling pricing
Amazon Redshift automatically adds transient capacity to provide consistently fast performance, even with thousands of concurrent users and queries. There are no resources to manage, no upfront costs, and you are not charged for the startup or shutdown time of the transient clusters. You can accumulate one hour of concurrency scaling cluster credits every 24 hours while your main cluster is running. You are charged the per-second on-demand rate for a concurrency scaling cluster used in excess of the free credits - only when it's serving your queries - with a one-minute minimum charge each time a concurrency scaling cluster is activated. The per-second on-demand rate is based on the type and number of nodes in your Amazon Redshift cluster.
Concurrency Scaling credits
Amazon Redshift clusters earn up to one hour of free Concurrency Scaling credits per day. Credits are earned on an hourly basis for each active cluster in your AWS account, and can be consumed by the same cluster only after credits are earned. You can accumulate up to 30 hours of free Concurrency Scaling credits for each active cluster. Credits do not expire as long as your cluster is not terminated.
Pricing example for Concurrency Scaling
A 10 DC2.8XL node Redshift cluster in the US-East costs $48 per hour. Consider a scenario where two transient clusters are utilized for five minutes beyond the free Concurrency Scaling credits. The per-second on-demand rate for Concurrency Scaling is $48 * 1/3600 = $0.013 per second. The additional cost for Concurrency Scaling in this case is $0.013 per second * 300 seconds * 2 transient clusters = $8. Therefore, the total cost of the Amazon Redshift cluster and the two transient clusters in this case is $56.
Redshift managed storage pricing
You pay for data stored in managed storage at a fixed GB-month rate for your region. Managed storage comes exclusively with RA3 node types and you pay the same low rate for Redshift managed storage regardless of data size. Usage of managed storage is calculated hourly based on the total data present in the managed storage (see example below converting usage in GB-Hours to charges in GB-Month). You can monitor the amount of data in your RA3 cluster via Amazon CloudWatch or the AWS Management Console. You do not pay for any data transfer charges between RA3 nodes and managed storage. Managed storage charges do not include back up storage charges due to automated and manual snapshots (see Backup Storage). Once the cluster is terminated, you continue to be charged for the retention of your manual backups.
Pricing example for managed storage pricing
Let’s first calculate the usage in GB-Hours for the above scenario. For the first 15 days, you will have the following usage in GB-Hours: 100GB x 15 days x ( 24 hours/day) = 36,000 GB-Hours.
At the end of April, all usage in GB-Hours adds to: 36,000 GB-Hours + 36,864,000 GB-Hours = 36,900,000 GB-Hours
Let's convert this to GB-Months: 36,900,000 GB-Hours / 720 hours per month in April = 51,250 GB-Month.
If this data was stored in the US East (Northern Virginia) Region, managed storage will be charged at $0.024/GB-Month. Monthly storage charges for 51,250 GB-Month will be: 51,250 GB-Month x $0.024 per GB-month = $1,230
Total Managed Storage Fee for April = $1,230
Reserved Instance pricing
Reserved Instances are appropriate for steady-state production workloads, and offer significant discounts over On-Demand pricing. Customers typically purchase Reserved Instances after running experiments and proof-of-concepts to validate production configurations.
You can benefit from significant savings over On-Demand rates by committing to use Amazon Redshift for a 1- or 3-year term. Reserved Instance pricing is specific to the node type purchased, and remains in effect until the reservation term ends. Prices include two additional copies of data - one on the cluster nodes and one in Amazon S3. We take care of backup, durability, availability, security, monitoring, and maintenance for you.
There are three options for Reserved Instance pricing:
No Upfront – You pay nothing upfront, and commit to pay monthly over the course of one year.
Partial Upfront – You pay a portion of the Reserved Instance upfront, and the remainder over a one- or three-year term.
All Upfront – You pay for the entire Reserved Instance term (one or three years) with one upfront payment.
Reserved Instances are a billing concept and are not used to create data warehouse clusters. When you make a purchase, you will be charged the associated upfront and monthly fees even if you are not currently running a cluster. To purchase Reserved Instances, visit the Reserved Nodes tab in our Console.
We may terminate the Reserved Instance pricing program at any time. In addition to being subject to Reserved Instance pricing, Reserved Instances are subject to all data transfer and other fees applicable under the AWS Customer Agreement or other agreement with us governing your use of our services.
* The Monthly rate below is the actual hourly rate multiplied by the average number of hours per month.
** The Effective Hourly rate below is the amortized hourly cost of the instance over the entire term, including any upfront payment.
Calculating your effective price per TB per year for Reserved Instances
For Reserved Instances, add the upfront payment to the hourly rate times the number of hours in the term, and divide by the number of years in the term and number of TB per node. For RA3, data stored in managed storage is billed separately based on actual data stored in the RA3 node types; effective price per TB per year is calculated for only the compute node costs.
Backup storage is the storage associated with automated and manual snapshots for your data warehouse. Increasing your backup retention period or taking additional snapshots increases the backup storage consumed by your data warehouse. There is no additional charge for backup storage up to 100% of your provisioned storage for an active data warehouse cluster. For example, if you have an active single XL node cluster with 2TB of storage, we will provide up to 2TB-Month of backup storage at no additional charge. Backup storage beyond the provisioned storage size and backups stored after your cluster is terminated are billed at standard Amazon S3 rates.
There is no charge for data transferred between Amazon Redshift and Amazon S3 within the same AWS Region for backup, restore, load, and unload operations. For all other data transfers into and out of Amazon Redshift, you will be billed at standard AWS data transfer rates. In particular, if you run your Amazon Redshift cluster in Amazon VPC, you will see standard AWS data transfer charges for data transfers over JDBC/ODBC to your Amazon Redshift cluster endpoint. In addition, when you use Enhanced VPC Routing and unload data to Amazon S3 in a different region, you will incur standard AWS data transfer charges. For more information about AWS data transfer rates, see the Amazon EC2 pricing page.