Amazon RDS for PostgreSQL FAQs

Q: Which database versions does Amazon RDS for PostgreSQL support?
Amazon RDS for PostgreSQL currently supports PostgreSQL 9.6, 10, 11, 12, 13, and 14. Information about the supported minor versions is available in the Amazon RDS User Guide.
Q: What are the extensions supported by RDS for PostgreSQL?
You can check the list of supported extensions in the Amazon RDS User Guide. To request support for additional extensions, you can send an email to with the extension name and use case.
Q: Does RDS for PostgreSQL support audit logging?
RDS for PostgreSQL supports several parameters you can set to log activity that occurs on your PostgreSQL DB instance. You can learn more about them in the Amazon RDS User Guide.
Q: Are there RDS for PostgreSQL limitations that I need to be aware of?
Yes, you can read about the limitations of RDS for PostgreSQL instances in the Amazon RDS User Guide.
Q: How does Amazon RDS distinguish between “major” and “minor” versions of PostgreSQL?
In the context of RDS for PostgreSQL, version numbers are organized as follows:
PostgreSQL version = X.Y.Z
From the Amazon RDS standpoint, a version change would be considered major if either the first or second part of the version number is being changed. Example: going from 9.4.X -> 9.5.Y.
A version change would be considered minor if the third part of the version number within the release is being changed. Example: going from 9.5.2 -> 9.5.4.
Refer to the PostgreSQL Versioning Policy for more information.
Q: Does Amazon RDS provide guidelines for upgrading engine versions or deprecation of engine versions that are currently supported?
Yes. Please refer to the Amazon RDS FAQs.

Trusted Language Extensions for PostgreSQL

Q: Why should I use Trusted Language Extensions for PostgreSQL?
Trusted Language Extensions (TLE) for PostgreSQL enables developers to build high performance PostgreSQL extensions and run them safely on Amazon RDS. In doing so, TLE improves your time to market and removes the burden placed on database administrators to certify custom and third-party code for use in production database workloads. You can move forward as soon as you decide an extension meets your needs. With TLE, independent software vendors (ISVs) can provide new PostgreSQL extensions to customers running on Amazon RDS.

Q: What are the traditional risks of running extensions in PostgreSQL and how does TLE for PostgreSQL mitigate those risks?
PostgreSQL extensions are executed in the same process space for high performance. However, extensions might have software defects that can crash the database. 
TLE for PostgreSQL offers multiple layers of protection to mitigate this risk. TLE is designed to limit access to system resources. The rds_superuser role can determine who is permitted to install specific extensions. However, these changes can only be made through the TLE API. TLE is designed to limit the impact of an extension defect to a single database connection. In addition to these safeguards, TLE is designed to provide DBAs in the rds_superuser role fine-grained, online control over who can install extensions and they can create a permissions model for running them. Only users with sufficient privileges will be able to run and create using the “CREATE EXTENSION” command on a TLE extension. DBAs can also allow-list “PostgreSQL hooks” required for more sophisticated extensions that modify the database’s internal behavior and typically require elevated privilege.

Q: How does TLE for PostgreSQL relate to/work with other AWS services?
TLE for PostgreSQL is available for Amazon RDS on PostgreSQL on versions 14.5 and higher. TLE is implemented as a PostgreSQL extension itself and you can activate it from the rds_superuser role similar to other extensions supported on Amazon RDS.

Q: In what versions of PostgreSQL can I run TLE for PostgreSQL? 
You can run
TLE for PostgreSQL in PostgreSQL 14.5 or higher in Amazon RDS.

Q: In what Regions is Trusted Language Extensions for PostgreSQL available?
TLE for PostgreSQL is currently available in all AWS Regions (excluding AWS China Regions) and the AWS GovCloud Regions.

Q: How much does it cost to run TLE?
TLE for PostgreSQL is available to Amazon RDS customers at no additional cost.

Q: How is TLE for PostgreSQL different from extensions available on Amazon Aurora and Amazon RDS today?
Aurora and Amazon RDS support a curated set of over 85 PostgreSQL extensions. AWS manages the security risks for each of these extensions under the AWS shared responsibility model. The extension that implements TLE for PostgreSQL is included in this set. Extensions that you write or that you obtain from third-party sources and install in TLE are considered part of your application code. You are responsible for the security of your applications that use TLE extensions.

Q: What are some examples of extensions I could run with TLE for PostgreSQL?
You can build developer functions, such as bitmap compression and differential privacy (such as publicly accessible statistical queries that protect privacy of individuals).

Q: What programming languages can I use to develop TLE for PostgreSQL?
TLE for PostgreSQL currently supports JavaScript, PL/pgSQL, Perl, and SQL.

Q: How do I deploy a TLE for PostgreSQL extension?
Once the rds_superuser role activates TLE for PostgreSQL, you can deploy TLE extensions using the SQL CREATE EXTENSION command from any PostgreSQL client, such as psql. This is similar to how you would create a user-defined function written in a procedural language, such as PL/pgSQL or PL/Perl. You can control which users have permission to deploy TLE extensions and use specific extensions.

Q: How do TLE for PostgreSQL extensions communicate with the PostgreSQL database?
TLE for PostgreSQL access your PostgreSQL database exclusively through the TLE API. The TLE supported trusted languages include all functions of the PostgreSQL server programming interface (SPI) and support for PostgreSQL hooks, including the check password hook.

Q: Where can I learn more about the TLE for PostgreSQL open-source project?
You can learn more about the TLE for PostgreSQL project on the official TLE GitHub page.

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