Amazon EBS Throughput Optimized HDD volumes

HDD Volumes offering up to 500 MB/s of throughput per volume

Throughput Optimized HDD (st1) volumes provide low-cost magnetic storage that defines performance in terms of throughput rather than IOPS. This volume type is a good fit for frequently accessed, large, sequential I/O workloads such as Amazon EMR, ETL, data warehouses, and log processing. Bootable st1 volumes are not supported and we recommend that customers with workloads performing small, random I/O use gp3. For more information, see Inefficiency of small read/writes on HDD.


Throughput Optimized HDD volumes are backed by hard disk drives (HDDs) and they are ideal for frequently accessed, throughput-intensive workloads with large datasets and large I/O sizes, such as MapReduce, Kafka, log processing, data warehouse, and ETL workloads.
Throughput Optimized HDD volumes offer the lowest cost for the amount of baseline throughput delivered, with baseline throughput of 40 MB/s per TB and bursting of up to 250 MB/s per TB and 500 MB/s per volume. For customers looking to cost-effectively support high throughput, IO intensive workloads, st1 can be an ideal solution.
These volumes deliver performance, measured in MB/s of throughput, and include the ability to burst up to 250 MB/s per TB, with a baseline throughput of 40 MB/s per TB and a maximum throughput of 500 MB/s per volume.

Product Details

Volume type

Throughput Optimized HDD (st1)


99.8% - 99.9% durability (0.1% - 0.2% annual failure rate)

Use cases

Big data

Data warehouses

Log processing

API Name


Volume size

125 GiB - 16 TiB

Max IOPS per volume (1 MiB I/O)


Max throughput per volume

500 MiB/s

Max throughput per instance

12,500 MB/s

Amazon EBS Multi-attach

Not supported


$0.045 / GB-mo (N. Virginia)