General

Q: What is Amazon Braket?

Amazon Braket is a fully managed service that helps you get started with quantum computing by providing a development environment to explore and design quantum algorithms, test them on simulated quantum computers, and run them on your choice of different quantum hardware technologies.

Q: Why should our company be thinking about quantum computing today?

Quantum computing is still an early stage technology, and designing useful quantum applications requires new skills and potentially radically different approaches to problem solving. Building this expertise will take time and requires access to quantum technologies and programming tools. Amazon Braket and the Amazon Quantum Solutions Lab help organizations assess the state of current technologies, identify how they might impact their business, and prepare for the future.

Q: What can I do with Amazon Braket?

Amazon Braket lets you design your own quantum algorithms from scratch or choose from a set of pre-built algorithms. Once you define your algorithm, Amazon Braket provides a fully managed simulation service to help troubleshoot and verify your implementation. When you are ready, you can run your algorithm on your choice of different quantum computers, including gate based and quantum annealing superconductors, and ion trap hardware. To make it easier to develop hybrid algorithms that combine classical and quantum tasks, Amazon Braket helps manage classical compute resources and establish low-latency connections to the quantum hardware. Once your tests are complete, you will be automatically notified and your results will be stored in Amazon S3. Amazon Braket publishes event logs and performance metrics such as completion status and execution time to Amazon CloudWatch.

Q: What is a hybrid quantum/classical algorithm?

Hybrid quantum/classical algorithms combine quantum operations with optimization processes and other tasks running on classical compute instances. This allows you to create iterative systems that help mitigate the effect of errors inherent in todays’ quantum computing systems. Amazon Braket supports the execution of hybrid algorithms as fully managed jobs, orchestrating the necessary resources to maximize efficiency and reduce cost.

Q: Why do I need to simulate my algorithm?

Software-based simulators running on classical hardware can accelerate quantum and hybrid algorithm development, saving cost and making it easy to troubleshoot code and optimize designs prior to running them on hardware-based quantum computers.

Q: Can quantum computers be used to crack encryption?

No, the performance of current quantum computers is significantly below the level required to run algorithms that could factor encryption keys and enable an attacker to decrypt encrypted data. However, it is important to start planning for the future and to familiarize yourself with the various efforts to develop and standardize quantum-safe cryptographic algorithms and key exchange protocols. AWS is an active participant in this field and has already implemented candidate cipher suites and made them available to customers as hybrid key exchange schemes within our own implementation of TLS. To learn more read our blog here.

Build

Q: What is the Amazon Braket development environment?
The Amazon Braket console provides a development environment that includes learning materials, fully managed notebooks to build and edit quantum algorithms, a technology agnostic developer framework for defining hybrid algorithms, and a choice of classical simulators for testing your designs.

Q: What is the Amazon Braket framework?

Amazon Braket provides a technology agnostic developer framework so you don’t have to code against different quantum programming environments. As different quantum technologies emerge you can be confident that your development experience will be consistent and that your work is compatible across technologies.

Q: How am I charged for using the Amazon Braket development environment?

With Amazon Braket, you pay only for what you use. For designing and building algorithms using managed notebooks, testing using classical simulators, running jobs on quantum and classical hardware, and training and deploying quantum algorithms you are charged only for the time that you are using those resources. Public pricing will be available when the service is Generally Available.

Test

Q: What is the Amazon Braket simulator?

Amazon Braket offers a choice of different simulators that includes both Schrödinger and tensor network based classical simulators for testing quantum and hybrid algorithms. With a simple selection you can choose the approach that is best suits your requirements. For quick validation of circuit designs you can run basic simulations directly in your notebook. For larger designs you can perform on-demand simulations using the Amazon Braket service. For longer running, more complex algorithms Amazon Braket orchestrates Amazon EC2 clusters and GPU resources to run fully managed, high-performance simulation tasks.

Q: Why are there different types of simulators?

The efficient simulation of quantum operations using classical computers is an active area of research with different simulation methods suiting different circuit designs and different quantum technologies and processes. With new advances in the field, we plan to expand the range of available simulators to help ensure that you can choose between these leading-edge tools, even as we enter the regime where quantum hardware can no longer be fully simulated.

Q: What can I do with Amazon Braket simulation?

The Amazon Braket simulators enable you to test your quantum algorithms at a fraction of the cost of using quantum hardware and, in some cases, without having to wait to access specific quantum machines. Simulation is a convenient way to quickly debug quantum circuits and to troubleshoot and optimize hybrid algorithms before progressing to run them on your choice of quantum hardware. There is a choice of simulators to suit the work you are doing.

Q: What simulations does it support?

Amazon Braket offers a choice of different simulators that includes both Schrödinger and tensor network based classical simulators. The simulators can be used for testing individual circuit designs or as part of hybrid quantum/classical algorithms.

Q: What instance types are supported?

Amazon Braket runs simulations as fully managed jobs, automatically determining the optimum compute instance type to run your simulation and managing those resources on your behalf. You don’t have to understand the various AWS instance types or how well they support your simulation job, Amazon Braket handles that for you.

Q: What is a simulation job?

A simulation job is no different than a quantum job. Both are Amazon Braket API requests to execute a quantum operation. All requests specify which backend system should run the operation. The choice of backends includes the various simulators and quantum computers that are available through the service. By changing an API parameter you select whether your jobs run on a simulator or your choice of quantum hardware.

Q: How do I see the results?

After completion, you will be automatically notified and your results will be stored in Amazon S3. In addition to providing the results of the execution, Amazon Braket also publishes event logs and performance metrics such as completion status and execution time to Amazon CloudWatch.

Q: How am I charged for running the simulator?

With Amazon Braket, you pay only for the simulator resources that you use. Public pricing will be available when the service is Generally Available.

Run

Q: How do I run my application on a quantum machine?

Quantum jobs are defined as either a quantum algorithm, typically a circuit design, or other types of problem definition statements depending on the nature of the application. These can be defined and run from within a managed Jupyter notebook, or initiated via the Amazon Braket console. Alternatively, you can design algorithms using your preferred developer environment and submit jobs for execution directly using the Amazon Braket API.

Q: How do I choose which machine to run on?

Some types of quantum computers are particularly well suited to solving specific sets of problems, for example, quantum annealers are typically used to solve combinatorial optimization problems, whereas other types are designed to be universal quantum computers. There are many factors that determine which type of machine will meet your needs, such as qubit count, qubit fidelity (error rate), qubit connectivity, coherence time, and cost. Full specifications are provided in the Amazon Braket console, and for further guidance you can engage with the Amazon Quantum Solutions Lab.

Q: What quantum hardware providers do you support?

We currently offer access to gate based superconductor computers from Rigetti, quantum annealing superconductor computers from D-Wave, and ion trap computers from IonQ. Over time, we plan to add more choices to give you the opportunity to test a wider variety of technology types and other providers within those various categories.

Q: Do my quantum jobs run immediately or do I have to wait?

Quantum computing is still an early stage technology and capacity on current machines is limited. Different types of quantum computers have different operational characteristics. If your chosen quantum hardware is available, your job will run immediately, if not, your job will be queued until it becomes available and you will be notified when the job is complete.

Q: How do I run hybrid algorithms?

When you run hybrid algorithms you can chose to manage the classical components of the algorithm yourself and use Amazon Braket for just the quantum operations or you can run the entire hybrid algorithm as a fully managed job, in which case, we orchestrate the classical compute resources on your behalf, returning the result for the overall operation when it completes.

Q: How am I charged for running my quantum jobs?

With Amazon Braket, you pay only for the time that you use the quantum hardware you requested. Pricing varies according to the hardware provider that you chose to use. Public pricing will be available at when the service is Generally Available.

Q: How do I see the results?

After completion of your quantum job or hybrid algorithm execution, you will be automatically notified and your results will be stored in Amazon S3. In addition to providing the results of the execution, Amazon Braket also publishes event logs and performance metrics such as completion status and execution time to Amazon CloudWatch.

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