Amazon RDS for MySQL FAQs

Q: Which versions of MySQL does Amazon RDS support?
Amazon RDS for MySQL currently supports MySQL Community Edition versions 5.7 and 8.0. Information about supported minor versions is available in the Amazon RDS User Guide.
 
Q: How does Amazon RDS distinguish between “major” and “minor” version releases?
In the context of MySQL, version numbers are organized as follows:
MySQL version = X.Y.Z
X = Major version, Y = Release level, Z = Version number within release series.
From the Amazon RDS standpoint, a version change would be considered major if either major version or release level is being changed. Example: going from 5.6.X -> 5.7.X.
A version change would be considered minor if the version number within the release is being changed. Example: going from 5.6.27 -> 5.6.29.
 
Q: Does Amazon RDS provide guidelines for upgrading engine versions or deprecation of engine versions that are currently supported?
Yes. Please refer to the Amazon RDS FAQs.
 
Q: What storage engines does Amazon RDS for MySQL support?
The Point-In-Time-Restore and Snapshot Restore features of Amazon RDS for MySQL require a crash-recoverable storage engine and are supported for InnoDB storage engine only. While MySQL supports multiple storage engines with varying capabilities, not all of them are optimized for crash recovery and data durability. For example, MyISAM storage engine does not support reliable crash recovery and may result in lost or corrupt data when MySQL is restarted after a crash, preventing Point-In-Time-Restore or Snapshot restore from working as intended. However, if you still choose to use MyISAM with Amazon RDS, following these steps may be helpful in certain scenarios for DB snapshot restore functionality. Federated Storage Engine is currently not supported by Amazon RDS for MySQL.
 
Q: What privileges are granted to the primary user for an RDS MySQL DB instance?
When you create a new DB instance, the default primary user that you use gets certain privileges. See Master User Account Privileges in the Amazon RDS User Guide for a list of the privileges.
 
Q: Which storage engines are supported for use with Amazon RDS for MySQL Read Replicas?
Amazon RDS for MySQL Read Replicas require a transactional storage engine and are only supported for the InnoDB storage engine. Non-transactional MySQL storage engines, such as MyISAM, might prevent Read Replicas from working as intended. However, if you still choose to use MyISAM with Read Replicas, we advise you to watch the Amazon CloudWatch “Replica Lag” metric (available via the AWS Management Console or Amazon CloudWatch APIs) carefully and recreate the Read Replica should it fall behind due to replication errors. The same considerations apply to the use of temporary tables and any other non-transactional engines.
 
Q: Can I configure the replication between my source Amazon RDS for MySQL DB Instance and a Read Replica to use row-based replication?
You can set the binary logging format to row-based for MySQL version 5.6 and later. By default, replication is set to mixed-format (which includes both row-based and statement-based replication), which should meet the requirements of most use cases. The MySQL documentation offers more information about the difference between mixed-format and row-based replication.

Amazon RDS Optimized Reads FAQs

Q: How does Amazon RDS Optimized Reads speed up query performance?
Workloads that use temporary objects in MySQL for query processing benefit from Amazon RDS Optimized Reads. Optimized Reads places temporary objects on the database instance's NVMe-based instance storage, instead of the Amazon Elastic Block Store volume. This helps to speed up complex query processing by up to 50%.

Q: Which RDS for MySQL database versions support Amazon RDS Optimized Reads? 
Amazon RDS Optimized Reads is available for RDS for MySQL on MySQL versions 8.0.28 and higher

Q: Which database instance types support Amazon RDS Optimized Reads? In what regions is it available?
Amazon RDS Optimized Reads is available in all Regions where db.r5d, db.m5d, db.r6gd, and db.m6gd instances are available. For more information, see the Amazon RDS DB instance classes documentation.

Q: When should I use Amazon RDS Optimized Reads?
Customers should use Amazon RDS Optimized Reads when they have workloads that require complex queries; general purpose analytics; or require intricate groups, sorts, hash aggregations, high-load joins, and Common Table Expressions (CTEs). These use cases result in the creation of temporary tables, allowing Optimized Reads to speed up your workload’s query processing. 

Q: Can customers convert their existing Amazon RDS databases to use Amazon RDS Optimized Reads?
Yes, customers can convert their existing Amazon RDS database to use Amazon RDS Optimized Reads by moving your workload to an Optimized Read-enabled instance. Optimized Reads is also available by default on all supported instance classes. If you’re running your workload on db.r5d, db.m5d, db.r6gd, and db.m6gd instances, you’re already benefiting from Optimized Reads.

Amazon RDS Optimized Writes FAQs

Q: How does Amazon RDS Optimized Writes write data files differently than MySQL?
MySQL protects users from data loss by writing data in 16KiB pages in memory twice to durable storage—first to the “doublewrite buffer” and then to table storage. Amazon RDS Optimized Writes writes your 16KiB data pages directly to your data files reliably and durably in one step using the AWS Nitro System.  

Q: Which RDS for MySQL database versions support Amazon RDS Optimized Writes?
Amazon RDS Optimized Writes is available for MySQL major version 8.0.30 and higher.  
 
Q: Which database instance types support Amazon RDS Optimized Writes? In what Regions is it available?
Amazon RDS Optimized Writes is available in db.r6i and db.r5b instances. It is available in all Regions where these instances are available, excluding AWS China Regions.
 
Q: When should I use Amazon RDS Optimized Writes?
All Amazon RDS for MySQL users should implement Amazon RDS Optimized Writes for up to 2x improved write transaction throughput. Applications with write-heavy workloads, such as digital payments, financial trading, and online gaming applications will find this feature especially helpful. Optimized Writes is available to RDS for MySQL customers at no additional cost.
 
Q: Is Amazon RDS Optimized Writes supported on Amazon Aurora MySQL-Compatible Edition?
No. Amazon Aurora MySQL-Compatible Edition already avoids the use of the “doublewrite buffer.” Instead, Aurora replicates data six ways across three Availability Zones (AZs) and uses a quorum-based approach to durably write data and correctly read it thereafter.
 
Q: Can customers convert their existing Amazon RDS databases to use Amazon RDS Optimized Writes?
At this time, this initial release does not support enabling Amazon RDS Optimized Writes for your existing database instances even if the instance class supports Optimized Writes.

Amazon Blue/Green Deployments FAQs

Q: What versions does Amazon RDS Blue/Green Deployments support?
Amazon RDS Blue/Green Deployments are available in Amazon Aurora MySQL-Compatible Edition versions 5.6 and higher, RDS for MySQL versions 5.7 and higher, and RDS for versions MariaDB 10.2 and higher. Learn more about available versions in the Aurora, RDS for MySQL, and RDS for MariaDB documentation.
 
Q: What Regions does Amazon RDS Blue/Green Deployments support?
Amazon RDS Blue/Green Deployments are available in all AWS commercial Regions, excluding China, as well as AWS GovCloud Regions.
 
Q: What kind of changes can I make with Amazon RDS Blue/Green Deployments?
Amazon RDS Blue/Green Deployments allow you to make safer, simpler, and faster database changes, such as major or minor version upgrades, schema changes, instance scaling, engine parameter changes, and maintenance updates.
 
Q: What is the cost of using Amazon RDS Blue/Green Deployments?
You will incur the same price for running your workloads on green instances as you do for blue instances. The cost of running on blue and green instances include our current standard pricing for db.instances, cost of storage, cost of read/write I/Os, and any enabled features, such as cost of backups and Amazon RDS Performance Insights. Effectively, you are paying approximately 2x the cost of running workloads on db.instance for the lifespan of the blue-green-deployment.
For example: You have an RDS for MySQL 5.7 database running on two r5.2xlarge db.instances, a primary database instance and a read replica, in us-east-1 AWS Region with a Multi-AZ (MAZ) configuration. Each of the r5.2xlarge db.instance is configured for 20 GiB General Purpose Amazon Elastic Block Storge (EBS). You create a clone of the blue instance topology using Amazon RDS Blue/Green Deployments, run it for 15 days (360 hours), and then delete the blue instances after a successful switchover. The blue instances cost $1,387 for 15 days at an on-demand rate of $1.926/hr (Instance + EBS cost). The total cost to you for using Blue/Green Deployments for those 15 days is $2,774, which is 2x the cost of running blue instances for that time period.
 
Q: What is the “blue environment” in Amazon RDS Blue/Green Deployments? What a “green environment”?
In Amazon RDS Blue/Green Deployments, the blue environment is your current production environment. The green environment is your staging environment that will become your new production environment after switchover.
 
Q: How do switchovers work with Amazon RDS Blue/Green Deployments?
When Amazon RDS Blue/Green Deployments initiate a switchover, it blocks writes to both the blue and green environments, until switchover is complete. During switchover, the staging environment—or green environment—catches up with the blue environment, ensuring data is consistent between the blue and green environments. Once the blue and green environment are in complete sync, Blue/Green Deployments promote the green environment as the new blue environment by redirecting traffic to the green environment. Amazon RDS Blue/Green Deployments are designed to enable writes on the green environment after switch-over is complete, ensuring zero data loss during the switchover process.
 
Q: After the Amazon RDS Blue/Green Deployments switches over, what happens to my old production environment?
Amazon RDS Blue/Green Deployments do not delete your old production environment. If needed, you can access it for additional validations and performance/regression testing. If you no longer need the old production environment, you can delete it. Standard billing charges apply on old production instances until you delete them.
 
Q: What do Amazon RDS Blue/Green deployments switchover guardrails check for?
Amazon RDS Blue/Green Deployments’ switchover guardrails block writes on your blue and green environments until your green environment catches up before switching over. Blue/Green deployments also perform health checks of your primary and replicas in your blue and green environments. It also performs replication health checks, for example, to see if replication has stopped or if there are errors. It detects long running transactions between your blue and green environments. You can specify your maximum tolerable downtime, as low as 30 seconds, and if your ongoing transaction exceed this your switchover will time out.
 
Q: Does Amazon RDS Blue/Green Deployments support Amazon RDS Proxy, cross-Region read replicas, or cascaded read replicas?
No, Amazon RDS Blue/Green Deployments do not support Amazon RDS Proxy, cross-Region read replicas, or cascaded read replicas.
 
Q: Can I use Amazon RDS Blue/Green Deployments to rollback changes?
No, at this time you cannot use Amazon RDS Blue/Green Deployments to rollback changes.
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