General Purpose

  • T3
  • T2
  • M5
  • M4
  • T3
  • T3 instances are the next generation burstable general-purpose instance type that provide a baseline level of CPU performance with the ability to burst CPU usage at any time for as long as required. T3 instances offer a balance of compute, memory, and network resources and are ideal for database workloads with moderate CPU usage that experience temporary spikes in use.

    T3 instances accumulate CPU credits when a workload is operating below baseline threshold. Each earned CPU credit provides the T3 instance the opportunity to burst with the performance of a full CPU core for one minute when needed. Amazon RDS T3 instances are configured for Unlimited mode, which means they can burst beyond the baseline over a 24-hour window for an additional charge.

    Features:

    • Burstable CPU, governed by CPU Credits, and consistent baseline performance
    • Unlimited mode to ensure performance during peak periods
    • Powered by the AWS Nitro System, a combination of dedicated hardware and lightweight hypervisor
    • AWS Nitro System and high frequency Intel Xeon Scalable processors result in better price performance than T2 instances
    Model vCPU* CPU Credits/hour Mem (GiB) Network Performance (Gbps)
    db.t3.micro 2
    12
    1 Up to 5
    db.t3.small 2
    24
    2 Up to 5
    db.t3.medium 2 24
    4 Up to 5
    db.t3.large 2 36
    8 Up to 5
    db.t3.xlarge 4 96
    16 Up to 5
    db.t3.2xlarge 8 192
    32 Up to 5

    All instances have the following specs:

  • T2
  • T2 instances are burstable general-purpose performance instances that provide a baseline level of CPU performance with the ability to burst above the baseline. T2 instances are a good choice for a variety of database workloads including micro-services and test and staging databases.

    The baseline performance and ability to burst are governed by CPU Credits. T2 instances receive CPU Credits continuously at a set rate depending on the instance size, accumulating CPU Credits when they are idle, and consuming CPU credits when they are active. 

    Features:

    • High frequency Intel Xeon processors
    • Burstable CPU, governed by CPU Credits, and consistent baseline performance
    • Free Tier eligible
    • Balance of compute, memory, and network resources

     

    Model vCPU* CPU Credits/hour Mem (GiB) Network Performance (Gbps)
    db.t2.micro 1 6 1 Low to Moderate
    db.t2.small 1 12 2 Low to Moderate
    db.t2.medium 2 24 4 Low to Moderate
    db.t2.large 2 36 8 Low to Moderate
    db.t2.xlarge 4 54 16 Moderate
    db.t2.2xlarge 8 81 32 Moderate

    All instances have the following specs:

    • Intel AVX, Intel Turbo
    • db.t2.micro, db.t2.small, db.t2.medium have up to 3.3 GHz Intel Scalable Processor
    • db.t2.large, db.t2.xlarge, and db.t2.2xlarge have up to 3.0 GHz Intel Scalable Processor
  • M5
  • M5 instances are the latest generation of General Purpose Instances and provideimproved performance over M4. This family provides a balance of compute, memory, and network resources, and is a good choice for many database workloads.

    Features:

    • 2.5 GHz Intel Xeon® Platinum 8175 processors with new Intel Advanced Vector Extension (AXV-512) instruction set
    • New larger instance size, m5.24xlarge, offering 96 vCPUs and 384 GiB of memory
    • Up to 25 Gbps network bandwidth using Enhanced Networking
    • Powered by the AWS Nitro System, a combination of dedicated hardware and lightweight hypervisor
    Model vCPU* Mem (GiB) Storage (GiB) Dedicated EBS Bandwidth (Mbps) Network Performance (Gbps)
    db.m5.large 2 8 EBS-only Up to 3,500 Up to 10
    db.m5.xlarge 4 16 EBS-only Up to 3,500 Up to 10
    db.m5.2xlarge 8 32 EBS-only Up to 3,500 Up to 10
    db.m5.4xlarge 16 64 EBS-only 3,500 Up to 10
    db.m5.12xlarge 48 192 EBS-only 7,000 10
    db.m5.24xlarge 96 384 EBS-only 14,000 25

    All instances have the following specs:

  • M4
  • M4 instances provide a balance of compute, memory, and network resources, and are a good choice for many database workloads including small and mid-size databases for open source or enterprise applications.

    Features:

    • 2.3 GHz Intel Xeon® E5-2686 v4 (Broadwell) processors or 2.4 GHz Intel Xeon® E5-2676 v3 (Haswell) processors
    • EBS-optimized by default at no additional cost
    • Support for Enhanced Networking
    • Balance of compute, memory, and network resources
    Model vCPU* Mem (GiB) Storage Dedicated EBS Bandwidth (Mbps) Network Performance
    db.m4.large 2 8 EBS-only 450 Moderate
    db.m4.xlarge 4 16 EBS-only 750 High
    db.m4.2xlarge 8 32 EBS-only 1,000 High
    db.m4.4xlarge 16 64 EBS-only 2,000 High
    db.m4.10xlarge 40 160 EBS-only 4,000 10 Gigabit
    db.m4.16xlarge 64 256 EBS-only 10,000 25 Gigabit

    All instances have the following specs:

Memory Optimized

  • R5
  • R4
  • X1e
  • X1
  • R5
  • R5 instances are the latest generation of memory optimized instances that deliver 5% additional memory per vCPU than R4 with the largest size providing 768 GiB of memory. In addition, R5 instances deliver a 10% price per GiB improvement and a ~20% increased CPU performance over R4.

    Features:

    • Up to 768 GiB of memory per instance
    • Intel Xeon Platinum 8000 series (Skylake-SP) processors with a sustained all core Turbo CPU clock speed of up to 3.1 GHz
    • Powered by the AWS Nitro System, a combination of dedicated hardware and lightweight hypervisor
    Model vCPU Mem (GiB) Storage (GiB) Dedicated EBS Bandwidth (Mbps) Networking Performance (Gbps)
    db.r5.large 2 16 EBS-Only up to 3,500 Up to 10
    db.r5.xlarge 4 32 EBS-Only up to 3,500 Up to 10
    db.r5.2xlarge 8 64 EBS-Only up to 3,500 Up to 10
    db.r5.4xlarge 16 128 EBS-Only 3,500 Up to 10
    db.r5.12xlarge 48 384 EBS-Only 7,000 10
    db.r5.24xlarge 96 768 EBS-Only 14,000 25

    All instances have the following specs:

  • R4
  • R4 instances are optimized for memory-intensive database workloads and offer better price per GiB of RAM than R3.

    Features:

    • High Frequency Intel Xeon E5-2686 v4 (Broadwell) processors
    • DDR4 Memory
    • Support for Enhanced Networking
    Model vCPU Mem (GiB) Storage Networking Performance (Gbps)
    db.r4.large 2 15.25 EBS-Only Up to 10
    db.r4.xlarge 4 30.5 EBS-Only Up to 10
    db.r4.2xlarge 8 61 EBS-Only Up to 10
    db.r4.4xlarge 16 122 EBS-Only Up to 10
    db.r4.8xlarge 32 244 EBS-Only 10
    db.r4.16xlarge 64 488 EBS-Only 25

    All instances have the following specs:

  • X1e
  • X1e instances are optimized for high-performance databases. X1e instances offer one of the lowest price per GiB of RAM among Amazon RDS instance types.

    Features:

    • High frequency Intel Xeon E7-8880 v3 (Haswell) processors
    • One of the lowest prices per GiB of RAM
    • Up to 3,904 GiB of DRAM-based instance memory
    Model vCPU Mem (GiB) SSD Storage (GB) Dedicated EBS Bandwidth (Mbps) Networking Performance
    db.x1e.xlarge 4 122 1 x 120 500 Up to 10 Gigabit
    db.x1e.2xlarge 8 244 1 x 240 1,000 Up to 10 Gigabit
    db.x1e.4xlarge 16 488 1 x 480 1,750 Up to 10 Gigabit
    db.x1e.8xlarge 32 976 1 x 960 3,500 Up to 10 Gigabit
    db.x1e.16xlarge 64 1,952 1 x 1,920 7,000 10 Gigabit
    db.x1e.32xlarge 128 3,904 2 x 1,920 14,000 25 Gigabit

    All instances have the following specs:

    In addition, x1e.16xlarge and x1e.32xlarge have

    • Intel Turbo
  • X1
  • X1 instances are optimized for large-scale, enterprise-class and in-memory applications, and offer one of the lowest price per GiB of RAM among Amazon RDS instance types.

    Features:

    • High frequency Intel Xeon E7-8880 v3 (Haswell) processors
    • One of the lowest prices per GiB of RAM
    • Up to 1,952 GiB of DRAM-based instance memory
    Model vCPU Mem (GiB) SSD Storage (GB) Dedicated EBS Bandwidth (Mbps) Network Performance
    db.x1.16xlarge 64 976 1 x 1,920 7,000 10 Gigabit
    db.x1.32xlarge 128 1,952 2 x 1,920 14,000 25 Gigabit

    All instances have the following specs:

Instance Features

Amazon RDS database instances provide a number of additional features to help you deploy, manage, and scale your database workloads.

Burstable Performance Instances

Amazon RDS allows you to choose between Fixed Performance Instances (e.g. M5 and R5) and Burstable Performance Instances (e.g. T3). Burstable Performance Instances provide a baseline level of CPU performance with the ability to burst above the baseline.

Amazon RDS T3 instances can sustain high CPU performance for as long as a workload needs it. For most general-purpose workloads, T3 instances will provide ample performance without any additional charges. The hourly T3 instance price automatically covers all interim spikes in usage when the average CPU utilization of a T3 instance is at or less than the baseline over a 24-hour window.

T3 instances’ baseline performance and ability to burst are governed by CPU Credits. Each T3 instance receives CPU Credits continuously, the rate of which depends on the instance size. T3 instances accrue CPU Credits when they are idle, and use CPU credits when they are active. A CPU Credit provides the performance of a full CPU core for one minute.

For example, a db.t3.small instance receives credits continuously at a rate of 12 CPU Credits per hour. This capability provides baseline performance equivalent to 20% of a CPU core (20% x 60 mins = 12 mins). If the instance does not use the credits it receives, they are stored in its CPU Credit balance up to a maximum of 288 CPU Credits. When the t3.small instance needs to burst to more than 20% of a core, it draws from its CPU Credit balance to handle this surge automatically.

While Amazon RDS T2 instances are restricted to baseline performance once the CPU Credit balance is drawn down to zero, Amazon RDS T3 instances can burst above the baseline even when its CPU Credit balance is zero. For a vast majority of database workloads where the average CPU utilization is at or below the baseline performance, the basic hourly price for t3.small covers all CPU bursts. If the instance happens to run at an average 25% CPU utilization (5% above baseline) over a period of 24 hours after its CPU Credit balance is drawn to zero, it will be charged an additional 9 cents (7.5 cents/vCPU-hour x 1 vCPU x 5% x 24 hours). See Amazon RDS Pricing for pricing details.

Many database workloads don’t need consistently high levels of CPU, but benefit significantly from having full access to very fast CPUs when they need them. Burstable Performance instances are engineered specifically for these use cases. If you need consistently high CPU performance for your database, we recommend you use Fixed Performance Instances.

Database Storage Options

Storage for Amazon RDS for MySQL, MariaDB, PostgreSQL, Oracle, and SQL Server is built on Amazon EBS, a durable, block-level storage service. Amazon RDS provides three volume types to best meet the needs of your database workloads: General Purpose (SSD), Provisioned IOPS (SSD), and Magnetic. General Purpose (SSD) is an SSD-backed, general purpose volume type that we recommend as the default choice for a broad range of database workloads. Provisioned IOPS (SSD) volumes offer storage with consistent and low-latency performance, and are designed for I/O intensive database workloads. Magnetic volumes provide a low cost per gigabyte and are provided for backwards compatibility.

Amazon Aurora features a distributed, fault-tolerant, self-healing storage system that auto-scales up to 64TB per database instance. It delivers high performance and availability with up to 15 low-latency read replicas, point-in-time recovery, continuous backup to Amazon S3, and replication across three Availability Zones (AZs).

EBS-optimized Instances

EBS-optimized instances enable Amazon RDS to fully use the IOPS provisioned on an EBS volume. EBS-optimized instances deliver dedicated throughput between Amazon RDS and Amazon EBS, with options between 500 and 4,000 Megabits per second (Mbps) depending on the instance type used. The dedicated throughput minimizes contention between Amazon EBS I/O and other traffic from your RDS instance, providing the best performance for your EBS volumes. EBS-optimized instances are designed for use with both Standard and Provisioned IOPS Amazon EBS volumes. When attached to EBS-optimized instances, Provisioned IOPS volumes can achieve single digit millisecond latencies and are designed to deliver within 10% of the provisioned IOPS performance 99.9% of the time. We recommend using Provisioned IOPS volumes with EBS-optimized instances or instances that support cluster networking for applications with high storage I/O requirements.

Enhanced Networking

Enhanced Networking enables you to get significantly higher packet per second (PPS) performance, lower network jitter and lower latencies. This feature uses a new network virtualization stack that provides higher I/O performance and lower CPU utilization compared to traditional implementations. Amazon RDS automatically enables Enhanced Networking for supported database instance types.