AWS News Blog

Amazon SageMaker Automatic Model Tuning: Using Machine Learning for Machine Learning

Today I’m excited to announce the general availability of Amazon SageMaker Automatic Model Tuning. Automatic Model Tuning eliminates the undifferentiated heavy lifting required to search the hyperparameter space for more accurate models. This feature allows developers and data scientists to save significant time and effort in training and tuning their machine learning models. A Hyperparameter Tuning job launches multiple training jobs, with different hyperparameter combinations, based on the results of completed training jobs. SageMaker trains a “meta” machine learning model, based on Bayesian Optimization, to infer hyperparameter combinations for our training jobs. Let’s dive a little deeper.

Model Tuning in the Machine Learning Process

A developer’s typical machine learning process comprises 4 steps: exploratory data analysis (EDA), model design, model training, and model evaluation. SageMaker already makes each of those steps easy with access to powerful Jupyter notebook instances, built-in algorithms, and model training within the service. Focusing on the training portion of the process, we typically work with data and feed it into a model where we evaluate the model’s prediction against our expected result. We keep a portion of our overall input data, the evaluation data, away from the training data used to train the model. We can use the evaluation data to examine the behavior of our model on data it has never seen. In many cases after we’ve chosen an algorithm or built a custom model, we will need to search the space of possible hyperparameter configurations of that algorithm for the best results for our input data.

Hyperparameters control how our underlying algorithms operate and influence the performance of the model. They can be things like: the number of epochs to train for, the number of layers in the network, the learning rate, the optimization algorithms, and more. Typically, you start with random values, or common values for other problems, and iterate through adjustments as you begin to see what effect the changes have. In the past this was a painstakingly manual process. However, thanks to the work of some very talented researchers we can use SageMaker to eliminate almost all of the manual overhead. A user only needs to select the hyperparameters to tune, a range for each parameter to explore, and the total number of training jobs to budget. Let’s see how this works in practice.

Hyperparameter Tuning

To demonstrate this feature we’ll work with the standard MNIST dataset, the Apache MXNet framework, and the SageMaker Python SDK. Everything you see below is available in the SageMaker example notebooks.

First, I’ll create a traditional MXNet estimator using the SageMaker Python SDK on a Notebook Instance:


import boto3
import sagemaker
from sagemaker.mxnet import MXNet
role = sagemaker.get_execution_role()
region = boto3.Session().region_name
train_data_location = 's3://sagemaker-sample-data-{}/mxnet/mnist/train'.format(region)
test_data_location = 's3://sagemaker-sample-data-{}/mxnet/mnist/test'.format(region)
estimator = MXNet(entry_point='mnist.py',
                  role=role,
                  train_instance_count=1,
                  train_instance_type='ml.m4.xlarge',
                  sagemaker_session=sagemaker.Session(),
                  base_job_name='HPO-mxnet',
                  hyperparameters={'batch_size': 100})

This is probably quite similar to what you’ve seen in other SageMaker examples.

Now, we can import some tools for the Auto Model Tuning and create our hyperparameter ranges.


from sagemaker.tuner import HyperparameterTuner, IntegerParameter, CategoricalParameter, ContinuousParameter
hyperparameter_ranges = {'optimizer': CategoricalParameter(['sgd', 'Adam']),
                         'learning_rate': ContinuousParameter(0.01, 0.2),
                         'num_epoch': IntegerParameter(10, 50)}

The tuning job will select parameters from these ranges and use those to determine the best place to focus training efforts. There are few types of parameters:

  • Categorical parameters use one value from a discrete set.
  • Continuous parameters can use any real number value between the minimum and maximum value.
  • Integer parameters can use any integer within the bounds specified.

Now that we have our ranges defined we want to define our success metric and a regular expression for finding that metric in the training job logs.


objective_metric_name = 'Validation-accuracy'
metric_definitions = [{'Name': 'Validation-accuracy',
                       'Regex': 'Validation-accuracy=([0-9\\.]+)'}]

Now, with just these few things defined we can start our tuning job!


tuner = HyperparameterTuner(estimator,
                            objective_metric_name,
                            hyperparameter_ranges,
                            metric_definitions,
                            max_jobs=9,
                            max_parallel_jobs=3)
tuner.fit({'train': train_data_location, 'test': test_data_location})

Now, we can open up the SageMaker console, select the Hyperparameter tuning jobs sub-console and check out all our tuning jobs.

We can click on the job we just created to get some more detail and explore the results of the tuning.

By default the console will show us the best job and the parameters used but we can also check out each of the other jobs.

Hopping back over to our notebook instance, we have a handy analytics object from tuner.analytics() that we can use to visualize the results of the training with some bokeh plots. Some examples of this are provided in the SageMaker example notebooks.

This feature works for built-in algorithms, jobs created with the SageMaker Python SDK, or even bring-your-own training jobs in docker.

We can even create tuning jobs right in the console by clicking Create hyperparameter tuning job.

First we select a name for our job, an IAM role and which VPC it should run in, if any.

Next, we configure the training job. We can use built-in algorithms or a custom docker image. If we’re using a custom image this would be where we defined the regex to to find the objective metric in the logs. For now we’ll just select XGBoost and click next.

Now we’ll configure our tuning job parameters just like in the notebook example. I’ll select the area under the curve (AUC) as the objective metric to optimize. Since this is a builtin algorithm the regex for that metric was already filled in by the previous step. I’ll set the minimum and maximum number of rounds and click next.

In the next screen we can configure the input channels that our algorithm is expecting as well as the location to output the models. We’d typically have more than just the “train” channel and would have an “eval” channel as well.

Finally, we can configure the resource limits for this tuning job.

Now we’re off to the races tuning!

Additional Resources

To take advantage of automatic model tuning there are really only a few things users have to define: the hyperparameter ranges, the success metric and a regex to find it, the number of jobs to run in parallel, and the maximum number of jobs to run. For the built-in algorithms we don’t even need to define the regex. There’s a small trade-off between the number of parallel jobs used and the accuracy of the final model. Increasing max_parallel_jobs will cause the tuning job to finish much faster but a lower parallelism will generally provide a slightly better final result.

Amazon SageMaker Automatic Model Tuning is provided at no additional charge, you pay only for the underlying resources used by the training jobs that the tuning job launches. This feature is available now in all regions where SageMaker is available. This feature is available in the API and training jobs launched by automatic model tuning are visible in the console. You can find our more by reading the documentation.

I really think this feature will save developers a lot of time and effort and I’m excited to see what customers do with it. As always, we welcome your feedback in the comments or on Twitter!

Randall

Randall Hunt

Randall Hunt

Senior Technical Evangelist at AWS. Formerly of NASA, SpaceX, and MongoDB.