AWS Security Blog

Now Use AWS IAM to Delete a Service-Linked Role When You No Longer Require an AWS Service to Perform Actions on Your Behalf

Earlier this year, AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) introduced service-linked roles, which provide you an easy and secure way to delegate permissions to AWS services. Each service-linked role delegates permissions to an AWS service, which is called its linked service. Service-linked roles help with monitoring and auditing requirements by providing a transparent way to understand all actions performed on your behalf because AWS CloudTrail logs all actions performed by the linked service using service-linked roles. For information about which services support service-linked roles, see AWS Services That Work with IAM. Over time, more AWS services will support service-linked roles.

Today, IAM added support for the deletion of service-linked roles through the IAM console and the IAM API/CLI. This means you now can revoke permissions from the linked service to create and manage AWS resources in your account. When you delete a service-linked role, the linked service no longer has the permissions to perform actions on your behalf. To ensure your AWS services continue to function as expected when you delete a service-linked role, IAM validates that you no longer have resources that require the service-linked role to function properly. This prevents you from inadvertently revoking permissions required by an AWS service to manage your existing AWS resources and helps you maintain your resources in a consistent state. If there are any resources in your account that require the service-linked role, you will receive an error when you attempt to delete the service-linked role, and the service-linked role will remain in your account. If you do not have any resources that require the service-linked role, you can delete the service-linked role and IAM will remove the service-linked role from your account.

In this blog post, I show how to delete a service-linked role by using the IAM console. To learn more about how to delete service-linked roles by using the IAM API/CLI, see the DeleteServiceLinkedRole API documentation.

Note: The IAM console does not currently support service-linked role deletion for Amazon Lex, but you can delete your service-linked role by using the Amazon Lex console. To learn more, see Service Permissions. (more…)

Reset Your AWS Root Account’s Lost MFA Device Faster by Using the AWS Management Console

To help secure your AWS resources, AWS recommends that you follow the AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) best practice of enabling multi-factor authentication (MFA) for the root user of your account. With MFA turned on, the root user of your account is required to submit one form of authentication, which is the account password, and another form of authentication, such as a one-time password (OTP) from an MFA device. If you have MFA enabled on your root account and you lose or misplace your root MFA device, you can now reset it by using the AWS Management Console.

Now, your root user can use the AWS sign-in page to verify your root account’s email address and phone number. Then, the root user can deactivate the lost MFA device and set up a new MFA device in its place. Note that this information verification feature is available only for AWS root users with a phone number associated with their root account. If your root user does not have a valid phone number associated with your root account, the root user must call AWS Support to reset the lost MFA device.

In this blog post, I demonstrate how to reset a lost MFA device faster by using the AWS Management Console to verify your root user’s email address and phone number. I then demonstrate how to set up a virtual MFA device that you can use in place of the lost MFA device.

Note: This feature is available only to AWS accounts created before September 14, 2017. If you created your account after September 14, 2017, contact AWS Support to reset your lost MFA device.

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Greater Transparency into Actions AWS Services Perform on Your Behalf by Using AWS CloudTrail

To make managing your AWS account easier, some AWS services perform actions on your behalf, including the creation and management of AWS resources. For example, AWS Elastic Beanstalk automatically handles the deployment details of capacity provisioning, load balancing, auto-scaling, and application health monitoring. To make these AWS actions more transparent, AWS adds an AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) service-linked role to your account for each linked service you use. Service-linked roles let you view all actions an AWS service performs on your behalf by using AWS CloudTrail logs. This helps you monitor and audit the actions AWS services perform on your behalf. No additional actions are required from you and you can continue using AWS services the way you do today.

To learn more about which AWS services use service-linked roles and log actions on your behalf to CloudTrail, see AWS Services That Work with IAM. Over time, more AWS services will support service-linked roles. For more information about service-linked roles, see Role Terms and Concepts.

In this blog post, I demonstrate how to view CloudTrail logs so that you can more easily monitor and audit AWS services performing actions on your behalf. First, I show how AWS creates a service-linked role in your account automatically when you configure an AWS service that supports service-linked roles. Next, I show how you can view the policies of a service-linked role that grants an AWS service permission to perform actions on your behalf. Finally, I use the configured AWS service to perform an action and show you how the action appears in your CloudTrail logs.
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How to Query Personally Identifiable Information with Amazon Macie

Amazon Macie logo

In August 2017 at the AWS Summit New York, AWS launched a new security and compliance service called Amazon Macie. Macie uses machine learning to automatically discover, classify, and protect sensitive data in AWS. In this blog post, I demonstrate how you can use Macie to help enable compliance with applicable regulations, starting with data retention.

How to query retained PII with Macie

Data retention and mandatory data deletion are common topics across compliance frameworks, so knowing what is stored and how long it has been or needs to be stored is of critical importance. For example, you can use Macie for Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard (PCI DSS) 3.2, requirement 3, “Protect stored cardholder data,” which mandates a “quarterly process for identifying and securely deleting stored cardholder data that exceeds defined retention.” You also can use Macie for ISO 27017 requirement 12.3.1, which calls for “retention periods for backup data.” In each of these cases, you can use Macie’s built-in queries to identify the age of data in your Amazon S3 buckets and to help meet your compliance needs.

To get started with Macie and run your first queries of personally identifiable information (PII) and sensitive data, follow the initial setup as described in the launch post on the AWS Blog. After you have set up Macie, walk through the following steps to start running queries. Start by focusing on the S3 buckets that you want to inventory and capture important compliance related activity and data. (more…)

AWS IAM Policy Summaries Now Help You Identify Errors and Correct Permissions in Your IAM Policies

In March, we made it easier to view and understand the permissions in your AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) policies by using IAM policy summaries. Today, we updated policy summaries to help you identify and correct errors in your IAM policies. When you set permissions using IAM policies, for each action you specify, you must match that action to supported resources or conditions. Now, you will see a warning if these policy elements (Actions, Resources, and Conditions) defined in your IAM policy do not match.

When working with policies, you may find that although the policy has valid JSON syntax, it does not grant or deny the desired permissions because the Action element does not have an applicable Resource element or Condition element defined in the policy. For example, you may want to create a policy that allows users to view a specific Amazon EC2 instance. To do this, you create a policy that specifies ec2:DescribeInstances for the Action element and the Amazon Resource Name (ARN) of the instance for the Resource element. When testing this policy, you find AWS denies this access because ec2:DescribeInstances does not support resource-level permissions and requires access to list all instances. Therefore, to grant access to this Action element, you need to specify a wildcard (*) in the Resource element of your policy for this Action element in order for the policy to function correctly.

To help you identify and correct permissions, you will now see a warning in a policy summary if the policy has either of the following:

  • An action that does not support the resource specified in a policy.
  • An action that does not support the condition specified in a policy.

In this blog post, I walk through two examples of how you can use policy summaries to help identify and correct these types of errors in your IAM policies. (more…)

How to Enable Your Users to Access Office 365 with AWS Microsoft Active Directory Credentials

You can now enable your users to access Microsoft Office 365 with credentials that you manage in AWS Directory Service for Microsoft Active Directory, also known as AWS Microsoft AD. You can accomplish this by deploying Microsoft Azure Active Directory (AD) Connect and Active Directory Federation Services for Windows Server 2016 (AD FS 2016) with AWS Microsoft AD. AWS Microsoft AD makes it possible and easy for you to build a Windows environment in the AWS Cloud, synchronize your AWS Microsoft AD users into Microsoft Azure AD, and use Office 365, all without needing to create and manage AD domain controllers. Now you can also benefit from the broad set of AWS Cloud services for compute, storage, database, and Internet of Things (IoT) while continuing to use Office 365 business productivity apps—all with a single AD domain.

Office 365 provides different options to support user authentication with identities that come from AD. One common way to do this is to use Azure AD Connect and AD FS together with your AD directory. In this model, you use Azure AD Connect to synchronize user names from AD into Azure AD so that Office 365 can use those identities. To complete this solution, you use AD FS to enable Office 365 to authenticate the identities against your AD directory. Good news: AWS Microsoft AD now supports this model!

In this blog post, we show how to use Azure AD Connect and AD FS with AWS Microsoft AD so that your employees can access Office 365 by using their AD credentials. (more…)

AWS Earns Department of Defense Impact Level 5 Provisional Authorization

AWS GovCloud (US) Region image

The Defense Information Systems Agency (DISA) has granted the AWS GovCloud (US) Region an Impact Level 5 (IL5) Department of Defense (DoD) Cloud Computing Security Requirements Guide (CC SRG) Provisional Authorization (PA) for six core services. This means that AWS’s DoD customers and partners can now deploy workloads for Controlled Unclassified Information (CUI) exceeding IL4 and for unclassified National Security Systems (NSS).

We have supported sensitive Defense community workloads in the cloud for more than four years, and this latest IL5 authorization is complementary to our FedRAMP High Provisional Authorization that covers 18 services in the AWS GovCloud (US) Region. Our customers now have the flexibility to deploy any range of IL 2, 4, or 5 workloads by leveraging AWS’s services, attestations, and certifications. For example, when the US Air Force needed compute scale to support the Next Generation GPS Operational Control System Program, they turned to AWS.

In partnership with a certified Third Party Assessment Organization (3PAO), an independent validation was conducted to assess both our technical and nontechnical security controls to confirm that they meet the DoD’s stringent CC SRG standards for IL5 workloads. Effective immediately, customers can begin leveraging the IL5 authorization for the following six services in the AWS GovCloud (US) Region:

AWS has been a long-standing industry partner with DoD, federal-agency customers, and private-sector customers to enhance cloud security and policy. We continue to collaborate on the DoD CC SRG, Defense Acquisition Regulation Supplement (DFARS) and other government requirements to ensure that policy makers enact policies to support next-generation security capabilities.

In an effort to reduce the authorization burden of our DoD customers, we’ve worked with DISA to port our assessment results into an easily ingestible format by the Enterprise Mission Assurance Support Service (eMASS) system. Additionally, we undertook a separate effort to empower our industry partners and customers to efficiently solve their compliance, governance, and audit challenges by launching the AWS Customer Compliance Center, a portal providing a breadth of AWS-specific compliance and regulatory information.

We look forward to providing sustained cloud security and compliance support at scale for our DoD customers and adding additional services within the IL5 authorization boundary. See AWS Services in Scope by Compliance Program for updates. To request access to AWS’s DoD security and authorization documentation, contact AWS Sales and Business Development. For a list of frequently asked questions related to AWS DoD SRG compliance, see the AWS DoD SRG page.

To learn more about the announcement in this post, tune in for the AWS Automating DoD SRG Impact Level 5 Compliance in AWS GovCloud (US) webinar on October 11, 2017, at 11:00 A.M. Pacific Time.

– Chris Gile, Senior Manager, AWS Public Sector Risk & Compliance

 

 

Now Create and Manage AWS IAM Roles More Easily with the Updated IAM Console

Today, we updated the AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) console to make it easier for you to create, manage, and understand IAM roles. We made improvements that include an updated role-creation workflow that better guides you through the process of creating trust relationships (which define who can assume a role) and attaching permissions to roles. Additionally, you can now view and understand the permissions attached to roles more easily by using policy summaries for each role in your account.

In this post, I provide background information about roles, show how to create roles correctly by using the updated IAM console, and review other changes to the role list and details pages that help you better manage your roles.

Background information about IAM roles

What are IAM roles?

IAM roles are a secure way to grant permissions to entities you trust. You can use a role in the following scenarios:

What are the different parts of an IAM role?

As illustrated in the following diagram, roles have two types of policies attached to them:

  • Trust policy – This policy defines the entities that can assume a role. When you create a role by using the IAM console, the trust policy is created for you. You can customize the trust policy after it has been created. A role can have only one trust policy.
  • Permissions policies – These policies define which AWS resources a role can access and the actions it can perform on those resources. These policies can be AWS managed policies, customer managed policies, or inline policies attached directly to the role. You can attach multiple permissions policies to an IAM role.

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How to Configure an LDAPS Endpoint for Simple AD

Simple AD, which is powered by Samba  4, supports basic Active Directory (AD) authentication features such as users, groups, and the ability to join domains. Simple AD also includes an integrated Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) server. LDAP is a standard application protocol for the access and management of directory information. You can use the BIND operation from Simple AD to authenticate LDAP client sessions. This makes LDAP a common choice for centralized authentication and authorization for services such as Secure Shell (SSH), client-based virtual private networks (VPNs), and many other applications. Authentication, the process of confirming the identity of a principal, typically involves the transmission of highly sensitive information such as user names and passwords. To protect this information in transit over untrusted networks, companies often require encryption as part of their information security strategy.

In this blog post, we show you how to configure an LDAPS (LDAP over SSL/TLS) encrypted endpoint for Simple AD so that you can extend Simple AD over untrusted networks. Our solution uses Elastic Load Balancing (ELB) to send decrypted LDAP traffic to HAProxy running on Amazon EC2, which then sends the traffic to Simple AD. ELB offers integrated certificate management, SSL/TLS termination, and the ability to use a scalable EC2 backend to process decrypted traffic. ELB also tightly integrates with Amazon Route 53, enabling you to use a custom domain for the LDAPS endpoint. The solution needs the intermediate HAProxy layer because ELB can direct traffic only to EC2 instances. To simplify testing and deployment, we have provided an AWS CloudFormation template to provision the ELB and HAProxy layers.

This post assumes that you have an understanding of concepts such as Amazon Virtual Private Cloud (VPC) and its components, including subnets, routing, Internet and network address translation (NAT) gateways, DNS, and security groups. You should also be familiar with launching EC2 instances and logging in to them with SSH. If needed, you should familiarize yourself with these concepts and review the solution overview and prerequisites in the next section before proceeding with the deployment.

Note: This solution is intended for use by clients requiring an LDAPS endpoint only. If your requirements extend beyond this, you should consider accessing the Simple AD servers directly or by using AWS Directory Service for Microsoft AD.

Solution overview

The following diagram and description illustrates and explains the Simple AD LDAPS environment. The CloudFormation template creates the items designated by the bracket (internal ELB load balancer and two HAProxy nodes configured in an Auto Scaling group). (more…)

Now Available: Improvements to How You Sign In to Your AWS Account

Today, AWS made improvements to the way you sign in to your AWS account. Whether you sign in as your account’s root user or an AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) user, you can now sign in from the AWS Management Console’s homepage. This means that if you sign in as an IAM user, you no longer have to use an account-specific URL. However, the account-specific URL you have used in the past to sign in will continue to work.

In the new sign-in experience, you can sign in from the home page using either your root user’s or IAM user’s credentials. In the first step, root users enter their email address; IAM users enter their account ID (or account alias). In the second step, root users enter their password; IAM users enter their user name and password.

In this blog post, I explain the improvements to the way you sign in to your AWS account as a root user or IAM user. If you use a password manager to help you sign in to your account, you may need to make updates so that it will work with the new sign-in experience. (more…)