AWS Big Data Blog

Identify and remediate security threats to your business using security analytics with Amazon OpenSearch Service

Threat detection, the detection of unexpected or unwanted configuration changes and the detection of unexpected behavior, is a key pillar of security on AWS. However, applications, native AWS security services, and partner tools generate a large amount of findings and logs, making it challenging for customers’ security teams to parse, prioritize and take action.

Amazon OpenSearch Service is a fully managed and scalable log analytics framework that you can use to ingest, store, and visualize data. You can use OpenSearch Service for a diverse set of data workloads including healthcare data, financial transactions information, application performance data, observability data, and much more. This managed service is valued for its ingest performance, scalability, low query latency, and its ability to analyze large datasets.

Security analytics with OpenSearch Service

Today, OpenSearch Service announces OpenSearch-powered security analytics, which includes features to monitor, analyze, and respond to potential security events to in your AWS environment. In this post, we discuss these new features and demonstrate how they can enhance your security posture and improve compliance by bolstering your threat detection and incident response capabilities.

Security analytics with OpenSearch provide real-time visibility across your environment. It monitors log sources and security findings from your environment and evaluates them against both out-of-the-box and user-created security rules. When potentially unauthorised or anomalous behaviour is detected, it creates findings that are sent to preconfigured destinations of your choice, such as Slack or email. Security Analytics also provides visualizations that allows you to quickly see trends and findings at a glance.

Security analytics is powered by the open-source OpenSearch project and deployed on OpenSearch Service with OpenSearch version 2.5 or higher. It includes the following key features:

  • Out-of-the-box support for over 2,200 open-source Sigma security rules
  • Support for log sources such as Windows, NetFlow, AWS CloudTrail, DNS, AD/LDAP, and more
  • Detectors that auto generate findings based on the Sigma rules
  • Automated alerts sent to preconfigured destinations
  • A rules editor to create new custom rules or modify existing rules
  • Visualizations to summarize findings and alerts trends

Sigma rules

Sigma is a generic signature format, expressed using YAML (yet another markup language), to describe significant events that occur in your logs in a simple and straightforward way. The format is portable across different SIEM implementations and fosters a community of threat hunters, so that you don’t have to reinvent the wheel if you change your SIEM implementation.

An example of a simple rule to detect the run of C:\Windows\System32\rundll32.exe, one of the most commonly used methods for launching malicious code on a Windows platform, could be the following YAML configuration:

title: Rundll32 execution
description: Detects a rundll32.exe execution
author: Captain Threathunter
date: 2023/03/05
    category: process_creation
    product: windows
        winlog-event_data-ProcessName: 'C:\Windows\System32\rundll32.exe'
    condition: selection
level: high
status: test

After you import this rule into the security analytics rules repository and enable it with your detector, it auto generates a security finding when the preceding condition matches an incoming event log.

Security analytics components and concepts

The security analytics offering includes a number of tools and features elemental to its operation. The major components that comprise the plugin are summarized in the following sections.

Log types

OpenSearch supports several types of logs and provides out-of-the-box mappings for each. The log type is specified during the creation of a detector and includes the ability to customize field mappings for that detector. For a log type selected in a detector, security analytics automatically enables a relevant set of rules that run at the configured interval.


Detectors are core components that you configure to identify a range of cybersecurity threats for a log type, across your data indexes. Detectors use custom rules and pre-packaged Sigma rules to evaluate events occurring in the system, automatically generating security findings from these events.


Rules, or threat detection rules, define the conditions applied to ingested log data to identify a security event. Security analytics provides prepackaged, open-source Sigma rules to detect common indicators of malicious activity from your logs. Security analytics also supports importing, creating, and customizing rules to meet your requirements. Many rules are also mapped to an ever-growing knowledge base of tactics and techniques maintained by the MITRE ATT&CK organization. You can take advantage of these options using either OpenSearch Dashboards or the APIs.


Findings are generated every time a detector matches a rule with a log event. Findings don’t necessarily isolate an event of interest which could suggest unauthorized activity in your system. Because they represent the result of a specific matched condition in a detector rule, findings include a unique combination of select rules, a log type, and a rule severity.


When defining a detector, you can specify one or more conditions that trigger an alert. When an event triggers an alert, the system sends a notification to a preferred channel, such as Slack or email. The alert can be triggered when the detector matches one or multiple rules. You can also create a notification message with a customized subject line and message body.

Taking the tool for a test drive

With an understanding of these fundamental concepts, let’s navigate to the security analytics interface in OpenSearch Dashboards. Security analytics also provides a robust set of configuration APIs.

Overview page

After you have logged in to OpenSearch Dashboards and navigate to the security analytics overview page, you’re presented with the current state of the detectors you are monitoring. You can see a summary view comprised of multiple visualizations. The following chart, for example, shows the findings and alerts trend for various log types over a given period of time.

As you scroll down on the summary page, you can review your most recent findings and alerts.

Additionally, you can see a distribution of the most frequently triggered rules across all the active detectors. This can help you detect and investigate different types of malicious activities across log types.

Finally, you can view the status of configured detectors. From this panel, you can also navigate to the create detector workflow.

Creating a detector

In the previous section, we reviewed the overview page. Now, let’s walkthrough the create detector workflow. One of the best things about security analytics are the prepackaged rules. You don’t have to write your own. You can use the prepackaged rules to get up and running quickly! In the following example, we show you how to create a detector with prepackaged rules for your Windows logs.

  1. In the Dashboards navigation pane, under Security Analytics, choose Detectors.
  2. Choose Create Detector to create a new detector.
    1. First, give it a name and a data source to query. The data source can be a pattern or specific index.
    2. When you select a Log type, all matching rules are automatically loaded and enabled by default. In this example, we select Windows logs to help narrow the set of rules applied to this detector. As an optional step, you can choose to selectively enable or disable one or more rules. See an example rules selection panel below.
    3. Specify a schedule to run the rules and select Next.
    4. Configure any necessary field mappings per your rule.
      You have two field mapping sections to optionally review. Default mapped fields provide pre-configured field mappings for the specific log type and enabled rules; you can skip this section unless you need to change the mappings. Additional mappings can be configured in the Pending field mappings section.
  3. Configure the alerts.
    The final step of setting up a detector is to configure the alerts and review your configuration. Note that each detector can generate multiple findings or alerts, and you have the option to customize the alert destination based on a rule match criterion such as severity, tags etc. In this example, we show you how to match a single rule that monitors a password dump to a host file system (QuarksPwDumps Dump File) and send the alert to a destination of your choice.

    1. First, define the name of the alert.
    2. Set up the criticality based on configurations in the rule and select the tags.
    3. Give the alert a severity and select a channel.
      If you need to create a new channel, there is a breadcrumb that sends you to the Notifications feature. You can create additional channels needed.
    4. Review the configuration and Create the detector. Once the detector is active, any time a rule is matched for your incoming logs, it will automatically generate a security finding and alert (if configured).

Configuring custom rules

One of the key capabilities of security analytics is defining custom rules and being able to import rules created by others such as a community of threat hunters.  As mentioned before, security analytics includes over 2200 rules out of the box.  In some cases, you may want to create your own rules.  If you navigate to the Rules page, you have the option to create your own rule.

The rules editor allows you to provide a custom rule that it will automatically validate. Once created, the rule is included in the rules library, helping you to customize your threat hunting needs.


The large number of logs and findings make it challenging for security teams to quickly detect and respond to potential security event. In this blog post, we highlighted how OpenSearch security analytics provides an open-source solution that empowers your team to rapidly triage respond, and investigate security findings. There is no additional charge for security analytics, and you can customize it to meet the security requirements of your organization. With simple workflows and prepackaged security content, security analytics will enhance the security posture of your environment.

To get started, create or upgrade your existing Amazon OpenSearch Service domain to OpenSearch version 2.5. To learn more about security analytics, see documentation.

About the Authors

Kevin Fallis (@AWSCodeWarrior) is an Principal AWS Specialist Search Solutions Architect.  His passion at AWS is to help customers leverage the correct mix of AWS services to achieve success for their business goals. His after-work activities include family, DIY projects, carpentry, playing drums, and all things music.

Jimish Shah is a Senior Product Manager at AWS with 15+ years of experience bringing products to market in log analytics, cybersecurity, and IP video streaming. He’s passionate about launching products that offer delightful customer experiences, and solve complex customer problems. In his free time, he enjoys exploring cafes, hiking, and taking long walks