AWS Security Blog
How to use regional SAML endpoints for failover
August 10, 2022: This blog post has been updated to reflect the new name of AWS Single Sign-On (SSO) – AWS IAM Identity Center. Read more about the name change here.
Many Amazon Web Services (AWS) customers choose to use federation with SAML 2.0 in order to use their existing identity provider (IdP) and avoid managing multiple sources of identities. Some customers have previously configured federation by using AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) with the endpoint signin.aws.amazon.com. Although this endpoint is highly available, it is hosted in a single AWS Region, us-east-1. This blog post provides recommendations that can improve resiliency for customers that use IAM federation, in the unlikely event of disrupted availability of one of the regional endpoints. We will show you how to use multiple SAML sign-in endpoints in your configuration and how to switch between these endpoints for failover.
How to configure federation with multi-Region SAML endpoints
AWS Sign-In allows users to log in into the AWS Management Console. With SAML 2.0 federation, your IdP portal generates a SAML assertion and redirects the client browser to an AWS sign-in endpoint, by default signin.aws.amazon.com/saml. To improve federation resiliency, we recommend that you configure your IdP and AWS federation to support multiple SAML sign-in endpoints, which requires configuration changes for both your IdP and AWS. If you have only one endpoint configured, you won’t be able to log in to AWS by using federation in the unlikely event that the endpoint becomes unavailable.
Let’s take a look at the Region code SAML sign-in endpoints in the AWS General Reference. The table in the documentation shows AWS regional endpoints globally. The format of the endpoint URL is as follows, where <region-code> is the AWS Region of the endpoint: https://<region-code>.signin.aws.amazon.com/saml
All regional endpoints have a region-code value in the DNS name, except for us-east-1. The endpoint for us-east-1 is signin.aws.amazon.com—this endpoint does not contain a Region code and is not a global endpoint. AWS documentation has been updated to reference SAML sign-in endpoints.
In the next two sections of this post, Configure your IdP and Configure IAM roles, I’ll walk through the steps that are required to configure additional resilience for your federation setup.
Important: You must do these steps before an unexpected unavailability of a SAML sign-in endpoint.
Configure your IdP
You will need to configure your IdP and specify which AWS SAML sign-in endpoint to connect to.
To configure your IdP
- If you are setting up a new configuration for AWS federation, your IdP will generate a metadata XML configuration file. Keep track of this file, because you will need it when you configure the AWS portion later.
- Register the AWS service provider (SP) with your IdP by using a regional SAML sign-in endpoint. If your IdP allows you to import the AWS metadata XML configuration file, you can find these files available for the public, GovCloud, and China Regions.
- If you are manually setting the Assertion Consumer Service (ACS) URL, we recommend that you pick the endpoint in the same Region where you have AWS operations.
- In SAML 2.0, RelayState is an optional parameter that identifies a specified destination URL that your users will access after signing in. When you set the ACS value, configure the corresponding RelayState to be in the same Region as the ACS. This keeps the Region configurations consistent for both ACS and RelayState. Following is the format of a Region-specific console URL.
For more information, refer to your IdP’s documentation on setting up the ACS and RelayState.
Configure IAM roles
Next, you will need to configure IAM roles’ trust policies for all federated human access roles with a list of all the regional AWS Sign-In endpoints that are necessary for federation resiliency. We recommend that your trust policy contains all Regions where you operate. If you operate in only one Region, you can get the same resiliency benefits by configuring an additional endpoint. For example, if you operate only in us-east-1, configure a second endpoint, such as us-west-2. Even if you have no workloads in that Region, you can switch your IdP to us-west-2 for failover. You can log in through AWS federation by using the us-west-2 SAML sign-in endpoint and access your us-east-1 AWS resources.
To configure IAM roles
- Log in to the AWS Management Console with credentials to administer IAM. If this is your first time creating the identity provider trust in AWS, follow the steps in Creating IAM SAML identity providers to create the identity providers.
- Next, create or update IAM roles for federated access. For each IAM role, update the trust policy that lists the regional SAML sign-in endpoints. Include at least two for increased resiliency.
The following example is a role trust policy that allows the role to be assumed by a SAML provider coming from any of the four US Regions.
- When you use a regional SAML sign-in endpoint, the corresponding regional AWS Security Token Service (AWS STS) endpoint is also used when you assume an IAM role. If you are using service control policies (SCP) in AWS Organizations, check that there are no SCPs denying the regional AWS STS service. This will prevent the federated principal from being able to obtain an AWS STS token.
Switch regional SAML sign-in endpoints
In the event that the regional SAML sign-in endpoint your ACS is configured to use becomes unavailable, you can reconfigure your IdP to point to another regional SAML sign-in endpoint. After you’ve configured your IdP and IAM role trust policies as described in the previous two sections, you’re ready to change to a different regional SAML sign-in endpoint. The following high-level steps provide guidance on switching the regional SAML sign-in endpoint.
To switch regional SAML sign-in endpoints
- Change the configuration in the IdP to point to a different endpoint by changing the value for the ACS.
- Change the configuration for the RelayState value to match the Region of the ACS.
- Log in with your federated identity. In the browser, you should see the new ACS URL when you are prompted to choose an IAM role.
The steps to reconfigure the ACS and RelayState will be different for each IdP. Refer to the vendor’s IdP documentation for more information.
In this post, you learned how to configure multiple regional SAML sign-in endpoints as a best practice to further increase resiliency for federated access into your AWS environment. Check out the updates to the documentation for AWS Sign-In endpoints to help you choose the right configuration for your use case. Additionally, AWS has updated the metadata XML configuration for the public, GovCloud, and China AWS Regions to include all sign-in endpoints.
The simplest way to get started with SAML federation is to use AWS IAM Identity Center. IAM Identity Center helps manage your permissions across all of your AWS accounts in AWS Organizations.
If you have any questions, please post them in the Security Identity and Compliance re:Post topic or reach out to AWS Support.
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