AWS Security Blog

How to Use New Advanced Security Features for Amazon Cognito User Pools

September 8, 2023: It’s important to know that if you activate user sign-up in your user pool, anyone on the internet can sign up for an account and sign in to your apps. Don’t enable self-registration in your user pool unless you want to open your app to allow users to sign up.

Amazon Cognito lets you easily add user sign-up, sign-in, and access control to your mobile and web apps. You can use fully managed user directories, called Amazon Cognito user pools, to create accounts for your users, allow them to sign in, and update their profiles. Your users also can sign in by using external identity providers (IdPs) by federating with Amazon, Google, Facebook, SAML, or OpenID Connect (OIDC)–based IdPs. If your app is backed by resources, Amazon Cognito also gives you tools to manage permissions for accessing resources through AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) roles and policies, and through integration with Amazon API Gateway.

In this post, I explain some new advanced security features (in beta) that were launched at AWS re:Invent 2017 for Amazon Cognito user pools and how to use them. Note that separate prices apply to these advanced security features, as described on our pricing page.

The new advanced security features of Amazon Cognito

Security is the top priority for Amazon Cognito. We handle user authentication and authorization to control access to your web and mobile apps, so security is vital. The new advanced security features add additional protections for your users that you manage in Amazon Cognito user pools. In particular, we have added protection against compromised credentials and risk-based adaptive authentication.

Compromised credentials protection

Our compromised credentials feature protects your users’ accounts by preventing your users from reusing credentials (a user name and password pair) that have been exposed elsewhere. This new feature addresses the issue of users reusing the same credentials for multiple websites and apps. For example, a user might use the same email address and password to sign in to multiple websites.

A security best practice is to never use the same user name password in different systems. If an attacker is able to obtain user credentials through a breach of one system, they could use those user credentials to access other systems. AWS has been able to form partnerships and programs so that Amazon Cognito is informed when a set of credentials has been compromised elsewhere. When you use compromised credentials protection in Amazon Cognito, you can prevent users of your application from signing up, signing in, and changing their password with credentials that are recognized as having been compromised. If a user attempts to use credentials that we detect have been compromised, that user is required to choose a different password.

Risk-based adaptive authentication

The other major advanced security feature we launched at AWS re:Invent 2017 is risk-based adaptive authentication. Adaptive authentication protects your users from attempts to compromise their accounts—and it does so intelligently to minimize any inconvenience for your customers. With adaptive authentication, Amazon Cognito examines each user pool sign-in attempt and generates a risk score for how likely the sign-in request is to be from a malicious attacker.

Amazon Cognito examines a number of factors, including whether the user has used the same device before, or has signed in from the same location or IP address. A detected risk is rated as low, medium, or high, and you can determine what actions should be taken at each risk level. You can choose to block the request if the risk level is high, or you can choose to require a second factor of authentication, in addition to the password, for the user to sign in using multi-factor authentication (MFA). With adaptive authentication, users continue to sign in with just their password when the request has characteristics of successful sign-ins in the past. Users are prompted for a second factor only when some risk is detected with a sign-in request.

To learn more about using MFA with adaptive authentication, see Multi-Factor (MFA) Authentication Settings. Amazon Cognito also can now verify email addresses and mobile phone numbers as part of the authentication process.

Metrics and data with the advanced security features

In addition, both the compromised credentials and adaptive authentication features provide metrics and data about the following:

  • Sign-up, sign-in, and forgotten-password events
  • The risk scores that are assigned to events
  • The results of sign-in attempts and second-factor challenges

You can view aggregate metrics by using the Amazon CloudWatch console. You also can view each user’s sign-in history in the Amazon Cognito console.

How to configure the advanced security features

Now that I’ve described the new advanced security features, I will show how to configure them for your mobile or web app. You have to create an Amazon Cognito user pool in the console and save it before you can see the advanced security settings.

First you must create and configure an Amazon Cognito user pool:

  1. Go to the Amazon Cognito console, and choose Manage your User Pools to get started. If you already have a user pool that you can work with, choose that user pool. Otherwise, choose Create a user pool to create a new one.
  2. On the MFA and verifications tab (see the following screenshot), enable MFA as Optional so that your individual users can choose to configure second factors of authentication, which are needed for adaptive authentication. (If you were to choose Required as the MFA setting for your user pool instead, all sign-ins would require a second factor of authentication. This would effectively disable adaptive authentication because a second factor of authentication would always be required.)

You should also enable at least one second factor of authentication. As shown in the following screenshot, I have enabled both SMS text message and Time-based One-time Password (TOTPs).
Screenshot of the "MFA and verifications" tab

  1. On the App clients tab, create an app client by choosing add an app client, entering a name, and choosing Create app client.

Second, configure the advanced security features:

  1. After you’ve configured and saved your user pool, you will see the Advanced security tab, as shown in the following screenshot. You can choose one of three modes for enabling the advanced security features: Yes, Audit only, and No:
    • If you choose No, the advanced features are all turned off.
    • If you choose Audit only, Amazon Cognito logs all related events to CloudWatch metrics so that you can see what risks are detected, but Amazon Cognito doesn’t take any explicit actions to protect your users. Use the Audit only mode to understand what events are happening before you fully turn on the advanced security features.
    • If you choose Yes, you turn on the advanced security features. We recommend that you initially run the advanced security features in Audit only mode for two weeks before choosing Yes.
      Screenshot of the "Advanced security" tab
  1. When you choose Yes to turn on the advanced security features, configuration options appear, as shown in the following screenshot:
    1. First, choose if you want to configure default settings for all of your app clients, or if you want to configure settings for a specific app client. As shown in the following screenshot, you can see that I’ve chosen global default settings for all my app clients.
    2. Next, choose the action you want to take when compromised credentials are detected. You can either Allow compromised credentials, or you can Block use of them. If you want to protect your users, you should choose Block use. However, you first can watch the metrics in CloudWatch without taking action by choosing Allow. You also can choose Customize when compromised credentials are blocked, which allows you to choose for which operations—sign up, sign in, and forgotten password—Amazon Cognito will detect and block use of compromised credentials.
      Screenshot of enabling advanced security features for a user pool
  1. The next section on the Advanced security tab includes the configuration for adaptive authentication. For each risk level (Low, Medium, and High), you can require a second factor for MFA or you can block the request, and you can notify users about the events through email. You have two MFA choices for each risk level:
    1. Optional MFA – Requires a second factor at that risk level for all users who have configured either SMS or TOTP as a second factor of authentication. Users who haven’t configured a second factor are allowed to sign in without a second factor. For optional MFA, you should encourage your users to configure a second factor of authentication for added security, but users who haven’t configured a second factor aren’t blocked from signing in.
    2. Require MFA – Requires a second factor of authentication from all users when a risk is detected, so any users who haven’t configured a second factor are blocked from signing in at any risk level that requires MFA.
    3. Block – Blocks the sign-in attempt.
    4. Notify users – Sends an email to the users to notify them about the sign-in attempt. You can customize the emails as described below.
      Screenshot of adaptive authentication configuration
  2. In the next section on the Advanced security tab, you can customize the email notifications that Amazon Cognito sends to your users if you have selected Notify users. Amazon Cognito sends these notification emails through Amazon Simple Email Service (Amazon SES). If you haven’t already, you should go to the Amazon SES console to configure and verify an email address or domain so that you can use it as the FROM email address for the notification emails that Amazon Cognito sends.
    Screenshot of notification message customization

You can customize the email subject and body for the email notifications with both HTML and plain text versions, as shown in the following screenshot.
Screenshot of configuring adaptive authentication notification messages

  1. Optionally, you can enter IP addresses that you either want to Always allow by bypassing the compromised credentials and adaptive authentication features, or to Always block. For example, if you have a site where you do testing and development, you might want to include the IP address range from that site in the Always allow list so that it doesn’t get mistaken as a risky sign-in attempt.
    Screenshot of adding exceptions for IP addresses

That’s all it takes to configure the advanced security features in the Amazon Cognito console.

Enabling the advanced security features from your app

After you have configured the advanced security features for your user pool, you need to enable them in your mobile or web app. First you need to include a version of our SDK that is recent enough to support the features, and second in some cases, you need to set some values for iOS, Android, and JavaScript.

iOS: If you’re building your own user interface to sign in users and integrating the Amazon Cognito Identity Provider SDK, use at least version 2.6.7 of the SDK. If you’re using the Amazon Cognito Auth SDK to incorporate the customizable, hosted user interface to sign in users, also use at least version 2.6.7. If you’re configuring the Auth SDK by using Info.plist, add the PoolIdForEnablingASF key to your Amazon Cognito user pool configuration, and set it to your user pool ID. If you’re configuring the Auth SDK by using AWSCognitoAuthConfiguration, use this initializer and specify your user pool ID as userPoolIdForEnablingASF.

Android: If you’re using the Amazon Cognito Auth SDK for Android that incorporates the hosted UI to sign in users, or if you’re using the Amazon Cognito Identity Provider SDK for Android to integrate your own native user interface, use at least version 2.6.9 of the SDK.

JavaScript: If you’re using the Amazon Cognito Auth JS SDK to incorporate the customizable, hosted UI to sign in users, use at least version 1.1.0 of the SDK. To configure the advanced security features, add the AdvancedSecurityDataCollectionFlag parameter and set it as true. Also add the UserPoolId parameter and set it to your user pool ID. In your application, you need to include "https://amazon-cognito-assets.<region>" to collect data about requests. For more details, see the of the Auth JavaScript SDK and the of the web app sample. If you’re using the Amazon Cognito Identity SDK to build your own UI, use at least version 1.28.0 of the SDK.

Some examples of the advanced security features in action

Now that I have configured these advanced security features, let’s look at them in action. I’m using the customizable, hosted sign-up and sign-in screens that are built into Amazon Cognito user pools. I’ve done some minimal customization, and my sign-up page is shown in the following screenshot.

Screenshot of a sign-up page

With the compromised credentials feature, if a user tries to sign up with credentials that have been exposed at another site, the user is told they cannot use that password for security reasons.

Screenshot showing compromised credentials being prevented from setting up a new account

If a user signs in, Amazon Cognito detects a risk, and you have configured adaptive authentication, the user is asked for a second factor of authentication. The following screenshot shows an example of an SMS text message used for MFA. After the user enters a valid code from their phone, they’re successfully signed in.

Screenshot of a second factor of authentication being requested

As I mentioned earlier in this post, Amazon Cognito also can notify your users whenever there’s a sign-in attempt that’s determined to have some risk. The following screenshot shows a basic example of a notification message, and you can customize these messages, as described previously.

Screenshot of a notification of a sign-in attempt that’s been determined to have some risk

The advanced security features also provide aggregate metrics and event histories for individual users. You can view the aggregate metrics in the CloudWatch console. Navigate to the Metrics section under Cognito. When you’re graphing, choose the Graphed metrics tab and choose Sum as the Statistic.

Screenshot of aggregate metrics in the CloudWatch console

You can view the event histories for users in the Amazon Cognito console on the Users and groups tab. When you choose an individual user, you see that user’s event history listed under their profile information. As the following screenshot shows, you can see information about users’ events, including the date and time, the event type, the risk detected, and location. The event history includes the Risk level that indicates the Low, Medium, or High ratings described earlier and the Risk decision that indicates if a risk was detected and what type.

Screenshot of event histories in the CloudWatch console

When you choose an entry, you see the event details and the option to Mark event as valid if it was from the user, or Mark event as invalid if it wasn’t.

Screenshot of a specific sign-in event and the options to mark the event as valid or invalid


You can use these advanced security features of Amazon Cognito user pools to protect your users from compromised credentials and attempts to compromise their user pool–based accounts in your app. You also can customize the actions taken in response to different risks, or you can use audit mode to gather metrics on detected risks without taking action. For more information about using these features, see the Amazon Cognito Developer Guide.

If you have comments about this post, submit them in the “Comments” section below. If you have questions about how to configure or use these features, start a new thread on the Amazon Cognito forum or contact AWS Support.

– Tim