AWS Partner Network (APN) Blog

Leveraging Neo4j and Amazon Bedrock for an Explainable, Secure, and Connected Generative AI Solution

By Ezhil Vendhan, Sr. Cloud Partner Architect – Neo4j
By Antony Prasad Thevaraj, Sr. Partner Solutions Architect – AWS


Amazon Bedrock is a fully managed service that enables customers to build and scale generative artificial intelligence (AI)-based applications using foundation models (FMs), democratizing access for all builders. Neo4j is a graph data platform that, together with Amazon Bedrock, offers a compelling value add to any enterprise.

Amazon Bedrock offers a choice of high-performing FMs from Amazon and leading AI startups including AI21 Labs, Anthropic, Cohere, Meta, and Stability AI accessible via single API, along with a broad set of capabilities you need to build generative AI applications. This simplifies development while maintaining privacy and security.

Generative AI has the potential to lower the barrier to entry to build AI-driven organizations. Large language models (LLMs) in particular can bring tremendous value to enterprises seeking to explore and utilize unstructured data. Beyond chatbots, LLMs can be used in a variety of tasks such as classification, editing, summarization, and drafting.

With Amazon Bedrock, you can easily experiment with a variety of top FMs, privately customize them with your data using techniques such as fine-tuning and retrieval augmented generation (RAG), and create managed agents that execute complex business tasks—from booking travel and processing insurance claims to creating ad campaigns and managing inventory—all without writing any code.

Since Amazon Bedrock is serverless, you don’t have to manage any infrastructure and can securely integrate and deploy generative AI capabilities into your applications using the AWS services you’re already familiar with.

Neo4j is an AWS Specialization Partner and AWS Marketplace Seller with the Data and Analytics Competency. Neo4j has defined the graph database space, and in this post we’ll cover how Neo4j integrates with Amazon Bedrock and aids in providing relevant and contextual responses using an enterprise’s private data.

Making LLMs Better with Neo4j

Large language models can be made more accurate by fine-tuning, few shot prompting, and grounding. Fine-tuning an LLM can be used to steer it to perform narrower tasks, while few shot prompting and other prompt engineering techniques teach an LLM to improve the way it responds to a particular request. These approaches alone will not suffice to meet the demands of enterprises, however.

Grounding minimizes hallucinations, eliminates bias, and provides explainability and data access controls. This is where Neo4j brings value, as knowledge graphs (KG) can be a memory layer for an LLM and enable factual data retrieval in real-time.

Questions in the real world often involve making multiple hops as they help uncover insights from connected data, and native graphs excel in multi-hop retrievals. Along with multi-hop retrievals, Neo4j acts as a vector database to perform vector similarity search. Both can be combined to bring more relevancy to RAG, and vectors can bring in similar data and multi-hop retrieval to facilitate filtering and fetch additional context.

With role-based access control (RBAC) support, enterprises have complete control over data retrieval, while there is also explainability in the retrieval. Moreover, knowledge graphs are transformative solutions that can be leveraged to solve a multitude of use cases.

Knowledge Retrieval Using Vector Search

Retrieving from Neo4j as a memory layer using LLMs can be advantageous as graphs provide a human-readable representation of data, allowing highly complex questions involving multiple hops to be answered with ease. With RBAC in Neo4j, access to nodes and relationships can be controlled.

Since Neo4j supports vector indexes, similar search algorithms can be applied for retrieval. Neo4j vector indexes are powered by Apache Lucene indexing and search library; Lucene implements a hierarchical navigable small world (HNSW) graph to perform a k approximate nearest neighbors (k-ANN) query over the vector fields.

When combined with retrieving-related nodes in the graph, there can be considerable improvements in contextuality, accuracy, and explainability to drive relevant and accurate responses.

For example, a query about budget-friendly cameras for teenagers will return low-cost, durable options in fun colors by interpreting the contextual meaning. That question would be turned into an embedding by a text-embedding model and passed into the Cypher (Neo4j’s query language) query for the search.

The snippet below finds the top five products using vector similarity search, and then enriches each product with their category, brand, and (optionally) with reviews by customers who bought and rated them a 5:

// find 5 products by similarity search in vector index
CALL db.index.vector.queryNodes('products', 5, $embedding) yield node as product, score

// enrich with additional explicit relationships from the knowledge graph
MATCH (product)-[:HAS_CATEGORY]->(cat), (product)-[:BY_BRAND]->(brand)
OPTIONAL MATCH (product)<-[:BOUGHT]-(customer)-[rated:RATED]->(product) 
         WHERE rated.rating = 5
OPTIONAL MATCH (product)-[:HAS_REVIEW]->(review)<-[:WROTE]-(customer) 

RETURN product.Name, product.Description, brand.Name, cat.Name, 
       collect(review { .Date, .Text })[0..5] as reviews

A RAG workflow using Neo4j as vector database can include both similar and semantic matches, which can ground the LLM better than a vector-only approach.


Figure 1 – RAG using Neo4j as a vector store.

Knowledge Retrieval Using Generated Cypher

Another RAG flow involves using LLMs to convert natural language queries to Cypher using prompt engineering. Given a Neo4j schema information, a user’s question can be converted to relevant Cypher query accordingly. This query can then be executed in the database, and results are retrieved and sent as context to answer the question back to the LLM.

Using few-shot prompting or fine-tuning, accuracy can be improved. This kind of RAG flow is demonstrated in Figure 2.


Figure 2 – RAG using natural language to Cypher on Neo4j.

Let’s consider a graph of Security Exchange Commission (SEC) Form 13 quarterly filings, which typically looks like this:

Figure 3 – Graph data model representing SEC Form 13 filings.

To convert an English-language query to retrieve results from Neo4j, we can use this prompt to convert English to Cypher query. In this prompt, we’ll be passing the Neo4j schema information so that the Anthropic Claude LLM running on Amazon Bedrock can generate relevant Cypher.


Figure 4 – Amazon Bedrock and Neo4j-powered data ingestion and RAG flow.

The prompt below instructs the LLM to generate Cypher from the user’s query based on the Neo4j schema adhering to certain rules. It also provides a few examples (few shot prompting) to guide the LLM on how to respond:

Human: You are an expert Neo4j Cypher translator who understands the question in english and convert to Cypher strictly based on the Neo4j Schema provided and following the instructions below:
1. Generate Cypher query compatible ONLY for Neo4j Version 5
2. Do not use EXISTS, SIZE keywords in the Cypher. Use alias when using the WITH keyword
3. Use only Nodes and relationships mentioned in the schema
4. Always enclose the Cypher output inside 3 backticks. Do not add 'cypher' after the backticks
5. Always do a case-insensitive and fuzzy search for any properties related search. Eg: to search for a Company name use `toLower( contains 'neo4j'`
6. Always use aliases to refer the node in the query
7. Cypher is NOT SQL. So, do not mix and match the syntaxes
8. `OWNS` relationship is synonymous with `BUY`

Strictly use this Schema for Cypher generation:

Human: Which of the managers own Amazon?
Assistant: MATCH p=(m:Manager)-[:OWNS]->(c:Company) WHERE toLower(c.nameOfIssuer) CONTAINS 'amazon' RETURN p;
Human: If a manager owns Meta, do they also own Amazon?
Assistant: MATCH p=(m:Manager)-[:OWNS]->(c:Company) WHERE toLower(c.nameOfIssuer) CONTAINS 'amazon ' MATCH q=(m)-[:OWNS]->(d:Company) WHERE toLower(d.nameOfIssuer) CONTAINS 'meta ' RETURN p,q
Human: If a manager owns Google, do they also own Apple?
Assistant: MATCH p=(m:Manager)-[:OWNS]->(c:Company) WHERE toLower(c.nameOfIssuer) CONTAINS 'google ' MATCH q=(m)-[:OWNS]->(d:Company) WHERE toLower(d.nameOfIssuer) CONTAINS 'apple ' RETURN p,q
Human: {question}

When asked this question – “How many managers own more than 100 companies and who are they?” – the LLM on Amazon Bedrock will generate this Cypher query:

MATCH (m:Manager)-[:OWNS]->(c:Company)
WITH m, count(c) AS companiesOwned
WHERE companiesOwned > 100
RETURN AS manager, companiesOwned
ORDER BY companiesOwned DESC

The query can then be executed in Neo4j to retrieve the following results:

  • BROOKFIELD CORP /ON/ owns 649 companies
  • BERKLEY W R CORP owns 236 companies
  • Granahan Investment Management, LLC owns 165 companies
  • GENEVA CAPITAL MANAGEMENT LLC owns 123 companies
  • ARBOR CAPITAL MANAGEMENT INC /ADV owns 106 companies

Building a Knowledge Graph

With the help of connectors, it’s fairly straightforward to build knowledge graphs using data pipelines from structured and semi-structured data. Note that unstructured data involves complicated natural language processing (NLP) pipelines. LLMs can understand unstructured data and can be prompt engineered to extract entities and relationships in accordance to a predefined graph schema.

Going back to the SEC example, we can prompt the LLM to extract entities and relationships according to the schema we want, and then build a knowledge graph to extract filing information, as demonstrated here:

From the text below, extract the following as a list of json enclosed by 3 backticks. You will find a lot of filing information under the <infoTable> tag. Extract all of them.
* The tags mentioned below may or may not be namespaced. So extract accordingly. Eg: <ns1:tag> is equal to <tag>
* "nameOfIssuer" - The name from the <nameOfIssuer> tag under <infoTable> tag
* "cusip" - The cusip from the <cusip> tag under <infoTable> tag
* "value" - The value from the <value> tag under <infoTable> tag
* "sshPrnamt" - The sshPrnamt from the <sshPrnamt> tag under <infoTable> tag
* "sshPrnamtType" - The sshPrnamtType from the <sshPrnamtType> tag under <infoTable> tag
* "investmentDiscretion" - The investmentDiscretion from the <investmentDiscretion> tag under <infoTable> tag
* "votingSole" - The votingSole from the <votingSole> tag under <infoTable> tag
* "votingShared" - The votingShared from the <votingShared> tag under <infoTable> tag
* "votingNone" - The votingNone from the <votingNone> tag under <infoTable> tag


Once ingested to Neo4j, the data will look like this:


Figure 5 – Ingested SEC Form 13 filing.

Potential applications of this knowledge graph in the capital markets space includes creating graph embedding features that can be used for algorithmic trading, understanding tail risk, securities master data management, and so on.


In this post, we walked through knowledge retrieval and extraction processes using Amazon Bedrock and Neo4j, and reviewed a couple of retrieval augmented generation (RAG) application architectures.

Using Amazon Bedrock, we simplified the knowledge extraction process which can be more complex and manual using traditional NLP libraries. Neo4j provides options to do RAG using vector indexes and an enriched data, LLM-generated Cypher. Thus, enterprises can build intelligent systems that are consistent, accurate, and explainable.

Using Neo4j as a memory layer with an LLM provides leverage to tackle multiple use cases. It’s not just an endpoint-specific solution; it can be transformative for enterprises to solve challenges like:

  • Finance: Financial documents can be complex to navigate for customer service professionals. Semantic search can help answer questions from semantically connected data stored in a knowledge graph.
  • Manufacturing: Warranty analytics using technical and warranty documentations can help service engineers understand history of issues, search for solutions from similar incidents, and uncover unseen connections and trends.
  • Supply chain: Enterprises use Neo4j for a wide variety of supply chain use cases like demand sensing, supply management, and channel shaping. LLMs can be used to enrich data from real-time news events to social media.

The example we worked through in this post can be explored in GitHub. We hope you fork it and modify it to meet your needs. Pull requests are always welcome!

If you have any questions, reach out to


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