AWS Cloud Enterprise Strategy Blog

Seven-step roadmap for CEOs and CFOs who are embarking on sustainability reporting journeys

Sustainability Given the increasing interest in ESG we are seeing among customer executives, we thought this blog post by AWS Senior Customer Solution Managers Hari Venkata and John Roberts would be useful. – Mark

Seven-step roadmap for CEOs and CFOs who are embarking on sustainability reporting journeys.

Hari Venkata (Sr. Customer Solutions Manager ISV), John Roberts (Sr. Customer Solutions Manager DNB)

Enterprises increasingly need to report on the sustainability of their companies, driven by new regulations and demand for transparency from the public and investors. In the US, a new rule on climate reporting proposed by the Security and Exchange Commission’s (SEC) would require listed companies to disclose detailed information on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, climate-related risks that are reasonably likely to have a material impact on their business, and transition plans to achieve net-zero targets. In June 2022, the European Union released  the Corporate Sustainability Reporting Directive (CSRD), which will require all large companies (all listed European companies and those with more than 250 employees and more than €40M turnover and/or more than €20M in totalassets ) to certify their sustainability reporting and improve accessibility to information. The CSRD will be phased in beginning in 2025 (with reporting for financial year 2024).

Given the increasing need for reporting and transparency, companies across the world need to formulate their sustainability risk management strategies and execution plans. In most companies, Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) and Chief Financial Officers (CFOs), as stewards of corporate strategy and governance, capital allocation, financial reporting, investor relations, regulatory compliances, risk management, and value creation will play an important role in sustainability initiatives reporting.

This blog presents a seven-step roadmap that provides high-level guidance for senior corporate leaders on how to prepare for sustainability reporting requirements in the US, Europe, and other parts of the world.

Step 1: Many companies will want to engage with their Board of Directors on the implications of the new Sustainability reporting regulations. A company’s board is well positioned to formulate a company’s sustainability strategy that is consistent with business strategy while focused on delivering economic value to shareholders. Sustainability strategy needs to take into account the entire value chain—Suppliers, Customers, Employees, Investors, and other Stakeholders. A company’s board can align the strategic goals of sustainability with the overall company vision and strategy by working with the CEO, CFO, and the executive leadership team.

Step 2: Define the sustainability operating model of the company. For the rank and file to fully adopt and implement sustainability strategies set by executive leadership, companies may consider a Sustainability Business Office (SBO) to establish the operating model (people, process, and technology) for translating high level sustainable goals to time bound initiatives and projects with tangible business outcomes. A company may choose to create a Chief Sustainability Officer (CSO) role who will work with CEO, CFO, and other top executives in implementing the company’s sustainability strategy. A CSO may define the blueprint for a company’s sustainability journey, considering the company’s business focus, industry metrics, opportunities for value creation, competitive landscape, geography, and overall digital transformation journey.

Step 3: Establish a reliable climate-related reporting and disclosure framework. Listed companies will need to establish a framework for identifying, collecting, analyzing, and reporting information about climate related risks and climate related financial statement metrics to their country-specific regulators. The new climate related disclosure rules would require a company to disclose information about its direct GHG emissions (Scope 1), indirect emissions from purchased electricity or other forms of energy (Scope 2), and GHG emissions from upstream and downstream activities in its value chain (Scope 3). The CFO may play a key role here in working with the Board, Audit Committee, CEO, CSO, and other CXOs in developing this framework.

Step 4: Define the Board and Audit Committee governance model. Since the new sustainability reporting will probably need to be part of the company’s annual shareholder report (10-K in US) there are high stakes involved in detailed and accurate sustainability reporting. A company’s board will need to monitor the progress, risks, and challenges around its sustainability journey. Given the time sensitive nature of upcoming sustainability reporting regulations, executive level dashboards with critical Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) should  be part of the toolkit for effective Board oversight. Boards may need to take pre-emptive corrective action if they feel that their sustainability journey is on a risky path.

Step 5: Define Sustainability targets and metrics. To meet the goals of the Paris Climate agreement, countries and public and private organizations/companies need to commit to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by half by 2030—and drop to net zero by 2050. Companies may set sustainability  targets (for example: three, five, 10, and 15 year) by aligning with global initiatives such as Science Based Targets initiative (SBTi). SBTi helps by independently assessing corporate emission reduction targets to ensure that they are in line with climate science. Sustainability reporting standards such as GHG Protocol can provide guidance, tooling, and training on defining and measuring sustainability metrics. As an example, Amazon is on a path to power its operations with 100% renewable energy by 2025—five years ahead of their original 2030 commitment. DoorDash’s 2021 Environmental, Social, and Governance Report is anotherexample of reporting on carbon accounting metrics for Scope 1 and Scope 2 GHG emissions.

Step 6: Deliver enabling Technologies: To meet the global climate challenge, the world needs rapid innovation in climate and digital technologies, and adoption of renewal energy sources across all industries. Chief Technology Officers (CTOs) and Chief Information Officers (CIOs) can accelerate adoption of sustainable IT such as cloud technologies that can address the dual challenges of digital and sustainable transformation. For example, AWS has added a new Sustainability Pillar to the existing AWS Well-Architected framework to help organizations learn, measure, and improve their workloads using environmental best practices for cloud computing. AWS Partner Splunk has developed a Sustainability Toolkit (based on the Splunk platform) which enables organizations to gain deep insights into their carbon footprint.

Step 7: Create Business Value: As companies embark on the sustainability transformation journey, they may discover new business transformation opportunities. A few companies may even rethink their business models leading to new value creation opportunities. CXOs need to collaborate as a leadership team to monitor their rapidly changing market landscape and look out for new value streams.


This blog outlined a seven-step guide for CXOs to use in planning their environmental sustainability reporting. As an example, please refer to Amazon’s Sustainability Report for 2021.

Mark Schwartz

Mark Schwartz

Mark Schwartz is an Enterprise Strategist at Amazon Web Services and the author of The Art of Business Value and A Seat at the Table: IT Leadership in the Age of Agility. Before joining AWS he was the CIO of US Citizenship and Immigration Service (part of the Department of Homeland Security), CIO of Intrax, and CEO of Auctiva. He has an MBA from Wharton, a BS in Computer Science from Yale, and an MA in Philosophy from Yale.

Hari Venkata

Hari Venkata

Hari Venkata is an ISV, Sr. Customer Solutions Manager for AWS. Hari has worked with ISVs and Startups in Silicon Valley and India for over 20 years in Customer Success and Product Management roles, helping companies accelerate their SaaS transformation journeys.

John Roberts

John Roberts

John Roberts is a Digital Native Business, Sr. Customer Solutions Manager for AWS. An experienced Silicon Valley executive of twenty years, John helps hyper growth startups scale-out cloud infrastructure operations while optimizing costs. Additionally, John is also the founder of two open-source CRM projects.