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How to implement multi-tenancy with Amazon Pinpoint

Navigating Multi-Tenancy in Amazon Pinpoint

Businesses are constantly evolving, often managing multiple product lines, customer segments, or even geographical locations. Furthermore, many business-to-business (B2B) companies that are Independent Software Vendors (ISVs) will often need to manage their customer’s marketing automation environment. This complexity necessitates a robust customer engagement strategy that can adapt and scale efficiently. However, managing disparate systems for each tenant is not only cumbersome but also resource-intensive, leading to increased operational costs and potential data silos. A multi-tenancy setup in Amazon Pinpoint addresses these challenges head-on, allowing businesses to streamline their customer engagement efforts under a unified architecture.

The question is not just whether to adopt multi-tenancy, but how to implement it in a way that aligns with your unique business requirements. Amazon Pinpoint offers multiple approaches to achieve this. This blog explores three:

  • Single Pinpoint Project: Simple but demands careful permissions management.
  • Multiple Pinpoint Projects: Granular control but limited by soft project quotas.
  • Multiple Account & Multi Pinpoint Projects: Highly scalable but needs comprehensive monitoring.

We’ll delve into the pros, cons, and best use-cases for each as well as how to choose the different multi-tenancy configuration depending on your communications channels needs, guiding you to make an informed architectural decision.

In this blog, we’ll cut through the complexity, helping you align your Amazon Pinpoint architecture with your business goals. Let’s get started.

Single Account / Single Project (SA/SP)


In a Single Pinpoint Project setup, all customer engagement activities reside within one project and multi-tenancy within this context will leverage customer endpoint attributes. This streamlined approach allows for easy management, especially for those new to Amazon Pinpoint. A configuration example for this case is shown below:

SA/SP architecture

When preparing one Pinpoint Project and managing information for multiple tenants, tenant information can be managed by using custom user attributes of endpoints. Also, campaign information can be managed for each tenant by using the tag function for campaign information (Note that this is only available programmatically at the moment). The elements required to take this configuration are shown below.

  • S3 buckets that hold customer data:
    • Prepare an S3 bucket to store customer information lists to be imported into Pinpoint. Amazon Pinpoint allows you to import CSV files in S3 as segments. In order to make settings for each tenant in Amazon Pinpoint, we will include tenant information as custom user attributes in the CSV file.
  • 1 Amazon Pinpoint Project:
    • Create 1 Amazon Pinpoint Project.
    • Settings for each channel to be distributed are also required.
    • Campaign information can be assigned to tenant information by using the tag function.
  • Amazon Kinesis:
  • Athena and S3 buckets to analyze event data:
    • Store Amazon Pinpoint event data in S3 and analyze it via Athena. Take advantage of this solution.

One thing to keep in mind when adopting this configuration is that customer endpoint information exists in the same Pinpoint Project. It is possible to specify values that can be used to identify each tenant, such as custom attributes, and solve the problem with AWS Identity and Access Management (IAM) policies, but it is necessary to manage access rights and attributes on your own.

Also, to add an endpoint, you’ll need to specify its Channel and Address. Take note that one project cannot have the same channel and address for different endpoints. From the above, if the channel and address of the endpoint do not overlap between tenants, it is possible to construct your own access permission control, then this pattern can be examined.

Since fewer components are required compared to other patterns, the configuration is easier to start with. Some customers that want to build on top of Pinpoint API and want to simplify configuration on the Pinpoint side as much as possible can also choose this option. However, this approach can get complex to manage later on as you onboard more tenants. The issue presents itself when you want to create detailed reporting for your tenant in this configuration. You’ll have to have dedicated tags on each campaigns, journeys to operationalize granular reporting for your Amazon Pinpoint project.

Lastly, take note of service limits per Amazon Pinpoint project/AWS account to ensure your use case will be scalable should the need arise.

Single Account / Multiple Projects (SA/MP)


For this architecture, you are still using a single AWS account to host your Amazon Pinpoint environment, however, you will be creating multiple projects for each customer or tenant. A configuration example for this case is shown diagram.

Single Account / Multiple Projects (SA/MP)

In this example, we will create multiple Amazon Pinpoint Projects. One major difference from the case of the Single Pinpoint Project is that it is possible to completely separate customer endpoint information. When importing customer data segments, it is possible to manage each tenant in a separate state simply by importing them from S3 into the target Pinpoint Project. This makes it easy to control permissions via IAM policies.

Also, with Amazon Pinpoint, you can use email addresses, SMS numbers, message templates, etc. for transmission obtained with the relevant account in common to all projects, and event data for each project can be aggregated via Amazon Kinesis. By adopting such a configuration, you gain the benefits of separating endpoint information per project while still retaining basic setting information management and operator operations.

An example starter solution architecture to set up this configuration are shown below.

  • S3 buckets that hold customer data:
    • Similar to SA/SP, prepare an S3 bucket to store a list of customer information to be imported into Pinpoint. CSV to be imported must be prepared for each project.
  • Amazon DynamoDB Table:
    • Prepare a DynamoDB (or other key-value database) table to manage Pinpoint project information. Tenant information can also be stored as metadata in the DynamoDB table.
  • AWS Lambda:
    • Create a Pinpoint Project using Lambda. Amazon Pinpoint allows you to create and configure projects using the Amazon Pinpoint API, the AWS SDK, or the AWS Command Line Interface (AWS CLI). Thus, it is possible to automate the creation of the Pinpoint project and associated campaigns/journeys. Tenant information is also registered in DynamoDB at the time of creation.
  • Multiple Amazon Pinpoint Projects:
    • This is a Project created by Lambda above. There will now be a Pinpoint Project for each tenant, and endpoint information will be completely separated. It is also easy to control access rights for each project by using the IAM function.
    • Message templates: templates can be created and shared across projects.
    • By using Amazon Pinpoint’s event stream settings, campaign/journeys/app/channels events can be streamed to Amazon Kinesis. Multiple Amazon Pinpoint projects can all stream to one Amazon Kinesis stream. When setup correctly, event data will be tagged with the relevant tenant information so that an analytics solution can decompose the stream later on.
  • Athena and S3 buckets to analyze event data:
    • Amazon Pinpoint event data is stored in Amazon S3 and analyzed via Amazon Athena. The analytics solution, Amazon Athena in this case will be responsible for filtering event data and according to the tenant. Refer to this solution for more details.

Note that Pinpoint projects have a soft limit of 100 projects per AWS account, which can be increased via raising a Support Ticket, other quotas also apply at the project and the account level which should be taken into account.

From the above, it is necessary to note that there are restrictions on quotas per account when using the SA/MP and more initial configurations would be required to automate the process of project creation for individual tenants. However, when compared to SA/SP architecture,

Multiple Accounts & Multi Pinpoint Projects (MA/MP)


Before diving into the MA/MP approach, it’s crucial to understand the role of AWS Organizations in this configuration. AWS Organizations allows you to consolidate multiple AWS accounts into an organization to achieve centralized governance and billing. This feature is particularly useful in a MA/MP setup, as it enables streamlined management of multiple AWS accounts and Amazon Pinpoint projects from a single central management AWS account. For more information on AWS Organizations, you can visit the official AWS Organizations documentation.

In an MA/MP setup, we utilize separate AWS Accounts for each customer or tenant. A configuration example for this case is shown below.

In this example, we have created a Management account and prepared multiple AWS accounts under it. The management account manages the AWS account ID and the Pinpoint project ID, and has a configuration created with Lambda. Customer data and Event Stream Data are managed through a Management account, and information on each project is aggregated. A major benefit of this configuration is the ability to segregate actions of individual tenants, preventing the such as noisy neighbours antipattern. It also enables AWS accounts from being freed from quota restrictions that cannot be handled by a single AWS account. Additionally, Amazon Pinpoint has excellent CloudFormation coverage, and it is also possible to deploy highly reproducible architectures automatically.

The elements required to set up this configuration are shown below.

  • AWS Organizations:
    • Set up Organizations to manage multiple accounts. See Best Practices for setting up multiple accounts.
  • Management account:
    • Create an account to manage multiple account information. Here we will set the following elements. Use IAM roles and Service control policies (SCPs) when manipulating resources across accounts. This allows cross-account access. The required elements are the same as the SA/MP described above.
      • S3 buckets that hold customer data: With AWS, you can utilize S3 data across accounts. Set up cross-account settings and securely link customer data to each account.
      • Dynamo DB Table: Holds your AWS account ID, Pinpoint Project ID, and management information associated with it.
      • AWS Lambda: Create a Pinpoint project using Lambda.
      • Athena and S3 buckets to analyze event data: Event information from multiple accounts and Pinpoint projects is aggregated and analyzed.
  • AWS accounts and Pinpoint projects per tenant:
    • Depending on how tenants are separated, prepare an AWS account and Pinpoint Project. You can also consider automating account creation by using AWS CloudFormation.
    • There are cases where it is necessary to set the distribution channel email address, SMS number, etc. for each account. See the next section for details.
    • Amazon Kinesis is prepared for each account, but everything is stored in the same S3 in the Management account for easier bird-eye’s view reporting.

One thing to keep in mind is that since accounts are separated, it becomes necessary to manage each one separately. For example, newly created account will be placed in the sandbox state, and an application for actual use via support tickets is required for each account. Also, since all reputation is done on a single account, it is also necessary to monitor reputation for each account.

For a sample template of the MA/MP configuration using AWS Cloud Development Kit, follow the instructions in this github repo.

Navigating Channels in Amazon Pinpoint: Aligning Service Delivery with Architecture

Beyond choosing a Pinpoint architecture for multi-tenancy, it’s pivotal to decide which channels best deliver your services and how that decision is affected by your choice of multi-tenancy architecture. Below is a non-exhaustive lists of capabilities in Amazon Pinpoint that will help with your multi-channel, multi-tenancy configurations as well as potential blockers that you’d need to be aware of for each channels.


Email is one of the most versatile channels, with integration with Amazon SES’s configuration sets and email suppression list capability, easily fitting into any of the three multi-tenancy models.

  • Configurations Sets: Using configuration sets, you’d be able to segregate your email sending activities using different IP Pools, as well as different event destinations.
    • You can use configuration sets in both Amazon Pinpoint and Amazon SES. Configuration sets rules that you configure in Amazon SES are also applied to email messages that you send using Amazon Pinpoint.
    • SA/SP and SA/MP: Email templates and sending IP addresses needs to be tagged using configuration sets for each tenant in the Pinpoint project.
    • MA/MP: Email templates and sending IP address can be sent using the account default, or follow granular tagging using configuration sets.
  • Email Suppression List: Suppression list is managed automatically at the account level. Alternatively, you can specify whether a specific configuration can override the account-level suppression list.
    • SA/SP and SA/MP:
      • All tenants will also follow the same account suppression list:
        • If any tenant sends to an email address that hard-bounced or complaint, all other tenants will also be unable to send emails to the same address.
        • You can override account-level suppression list at the configuration set level.
    • MA/MP:
      • If one of your tenant sends an email to a hard-bounced or complaint address, only the AWS account that the tenant belongs to will respect the suppression list i.e. other tenants in other AWS account can still send email to that email address.
  • Noisy Neighbour Threat: Broadly, this occurs when one tenant’s performance is degraded because of the activities of another tenant. Applied to email, the anti-pattern needs to be addressed because you don’t want one bad actor tenant to affect the entire environment’s email sending activity. If a customer exceeds the limits for bounce or complaint rates then their ability to send may be paused. This is done at the region level for automated reviews for infractions.
    • SA/SP and SA/MP:
      • Because email bounce and complaint rates are tracked at the REGION level, it is possible your entire account email sending domain to be blocked due to high bounce/complaint incidences from one bad tenant within the same AWS region.
      • To mitigate this, it’s best practice to set up dedicated configuration sets and alarms to alert when any individual tenant is exhibiting high bounce/complaint rate.
    • MA/MP:
      • Offers the most segregation and ensure email identities/domains are only usable by one tenant/account.
    • Important: AWS Trust and Safety team has the ability to manually review and extend the email sending pause to the account level, domain level, or even across multiple accounts so it’s always best practice to ensure that you’re managing all your tenants’ sending activity responsibly regardless of which architecture you choose to employ.
  • Email Sending Quota:
    • Email daily sending quota and email sending rate live at the account level.
    • SA/SP and SA/MP:
      • You would need to anticipate the total daily sending quota and sending rate for all tenants in your AWS account and raise the service limits accordingly. Therefore, more planning will be involved to estimate the correct service limit threshold.
    • MA/MP:
      • You can raise service limits per individual tenant’s needs since each tenant will be on a separate AWS account.
      • It is best practice to have business process in place for individual tenant to notify of their email sending quota request in advance so that it can be raised accordingly for their AWS account.
  • For further discussion into sending emails in a multi-tenancy environment, refer to this AWS blog on Multi-Tenancy in SES.


  • Origination Identity procurement: Remember that OIDs (phone numbers) are bound to AWS accounts AND regions.
    • Since OIDs do not carry across account/region, you will need to repeat the procurement process for every new AWS account and region.
  • Number Pooling: This feature groups phone numbers or sender IDs. It’s particularly useful in a Single Project model to segment communications per tenant.
  • Configuration Sets: With the release of the V2 SMS and Voice API, you can now use configuration sets to manage your SMS opt-out lists, OIDs and event streaming destinations for a multi-tenant environment.
  • Noisy Neighbour Threat:
    • SA/SP and SA/MP:
      • Take note that if you do not specify an OID in your API call, Amazon Pinpoint will attempt to use the most suitable (in terms of throughput and deliverability) OID to send your SMS. This
      • Similar to email, you can leverage number pooling and configuration sets to segregate SMS sending activity within a single account. This helps protect’s your SMS OID reputation because it can be costly and time-consuming to request new OIDs.
    • MA/MP:
      • Offers the most segregation and ensure numbers are only usable by one tenant/account.
  • SMS Opt Outs: Similar to the email channel’s suppression list, opt-outs are managed per account and configuration sets. Therefore, in a MA/MP setup, a customer that has opted out from communication in one account can still receive communications from other accounts.

Push Notifications

Amazon Pinpoint integrates with various push services like FCM, APNS, Baidu Cloud Push, and ADM.

  • Project-level Authentication: Authentication information is set at the Pinpoint Project level, requiring separate management.
    • Therefore, you will not be able to use the SA/SP architecture for multiple tenants using different applications.
  • For more information, refer to the Mobile Push Guide

In-app Messages

  • Pinpoint Project Specific: Similar to push notifications, each Pinpoint Project can only house one in-app message application.
    • If you have multiple applications requiring in-app messages, you will not be able to employ the SA/SP architecture.
  • For more information, refer to the In-app Channel Documentation.

Custom Channels

  • Custom channels in Amazon Pinpoint allow you to send messages through any service that has an API, including third-party services. You can interact with APIs by using a webhook, or by calling an AWS Lambda function.If you are using custom channels extensively from Amazon Pinpoint, you’ll need to be aware of service limits in AWS Lambda, , especially if you’re considering SA/SP or SA/MP architectures.


In this blog, we’ve untangled the intricacies of implementing multi-tenancy in Amazon Pinpoint. Our deep dive covered three architectural patterns:

  • Single Account/Single Project (SA/SP): A beginner-friendly approach offering simple management but requiring meticulous permissions handling to segregate sending activity between different tenants.
  • Single Account/Multiple Projects (SA/MP): Offers granular control over customer data with slight increased in management complexity. However, this approach faces soft quotas and potential ‘Noisy Neighbor’ issues.
  • Multiple Accounts/Multiple Projects (MA/MP): Provides the most flexibility and isolation, albeit with increased management complexity.

Each approach comes with its own set of trade-offs related to ease of management/reporting, scalability, and control over customer data. Our discussion didn’t stop at architecture; we also examined how your multi-tenancy decisions will affect your channel configurations in Amazon Pinpoint. From email and SMS to push notifications, the architectural choices you make will have a direct impact on how efficiently you can manage these distribution channels. Armed with this information, you’re now better equipped to make informed decisions that align with your business objectives.

Call to Action

Your next step? Implement and architect your Amazon Pinpoint environment. Use the best practices and architectural guidelines outlined in this blog post as your north star. Going forward, the architectural blueprint you choose should be tailored to your specific needs—be it user count, company size, or distribution channels. Take into account not just the initial setup but also the long-term management aspects, including the respective service limits and quotas.

Relevant Links

About the Authors

Tristan (Tri) Nguyen

Tristan (Tri) Nguyen

Tristan (Tri) Nguyen is a Senior Specialist Solutions Architect at AWS. With deep expertise in data science, martech and customer data platforms, Tristan specialises in utilising Machine Learning and Generative AI to craft scalable customer engagement strategies and architectural solutions for customer across the Asia Pacific Region. He holds a Master of Computer Science from the Georgia Institute of Technology, and has extensive hands-on experience with AWS technologies, achieving all 12 AWS certifications. In his spare time, Tristan dabbles in triathlon, hiking big mountains and climbing big rocks.

Tatsuya Nakamura

Tatsuya Nakamura

Nakamura Tatsuya is a Solutions Architect in charge of enterprise companies at AWS. He is mainly in charge of the trading company industry and the distribution/retail industry, also supporting the implementation of Amazon Pinpoint for Japanese customers. His career so far includes ERP implementation support and multiple new web service launches.