Deploying IPFS Cluster using AWS Fargate and Amazon EFS One Zone

Logo / architecture diagram of Peers a-D of an IPFS swarm


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IPFS (InterPlanetary File System) is a popular decentralized storage solution used for many use cases like decentralized applications, p2p data sharing, or immutable file systems. For more usage ideas see these examples.

IPFS Cluster is another application that runs alongside IPFS and provides data orchestration across a swarm of IPFS daemons by allocating, replicating, and tracking a global pinset distributed among multiple peers.

For example, if you want to create a non-fungible token (NFT) collection, you should store your assets on IPFS. IPFS ensures that your assets are stored in a decentralized way and are immutable. This way your NFTs can live on the internet independently from you, your business, hosting solution and domain name.

In this post, we’ll deploy a highly available and serverless IPFS Cluster using AWS Fargate and Amazon EFS One Zone. This stack helps you quickly deploy your own IPFS Cluster instead of relying on a third-party IPFS pinning services.

Solution overview

This IPFS stack is suitable for various type of projects like storing and serving NFT assets, storing Docker images, hosting a website or distributing files across multiple regions. It’s meant to be cost effective and easy to deploy and operate.

We’ll use AWS Fargate to run IPFS, which is a serverless, pay-as-you-go compute engine for containers that lets you focus on building applications without managing servers. Amazon Elastic Container Service (Amazon ECS) is a container orchestration service that manages AWS Fargate tasks and services and helps you run container clusters.

We’ll deploy three Amazon ECS services, each running a single AWS Fargate task. Each task is in charge of running two containers in the same environment: one container for IPFS and one for IPFS Cluster.

Amazon EFS provides a simple, serverless, and performant elastic filesystem service which can be mounted in our AWS Fargate task and containers. As IPFS Cluster replicates the pinned content of our cluster across multiple Availability Zones (AZs) it provides high availability automatically so we can use Amazon EFS One Zone to lower our storage cost.

Amazon EFS is a network filesystem, so there are some performance limitations to consider even though we could use the newly announced elastic throughput mode (much more expensive). If you need high performance storage and throughput, then running IPFS on Amazon EC2 with storage services like Amazon EBS or Amazon FSx is recommended. Take a look at the Amazon EBS gp3 drive performances here to compare with Amazon EFS. Using Amazon S3 as storage layer for your IPFS files is also an option, see below for more information.

In front of our IPFS nodes, we deploy one Application Load Balancers (ALB), which load balances traffic among our three IPFS Gateways and IPFS Cluster REST API endpoints. The ALB also monitors the nodes and take them out of rotation if they become unhealthy.

To make our IPFS Gateway ALB endpoint available over HTTPS, we create an Amazon CloudFront distribution that uses the port 80 of our ALB as origin. Amazon CloudFront will be our Content Delivery Network (CDN). It improves performances by caching our IPFS files at the edge and enforcing HTTPS access to your files. You can configure the distribution to serve files under your own DNS domain name.

We’ll interact with IPFS through the IPFS Cluster REST API that controls IPFS. To make our IPFS Cluster REST API secure, we create another Amazon CloudFront distribution using the port 9094 of our ALB as origin. Amazon CloudFront secures the connection with HTTPS and safely pass our credentials to the REST API. This way, we can operate and add files to our cluster remotely.

IPFS network architecture diagram

Deployment walkthrough


To deploy this solution you will need:

  • An AWS Account and proper AWS Identify and Access Management (AWS IAM) permissions to create all the resources needed for this architecture
  • A VPC with three public subnets in three different AZs
  • A Linux, Mac or Windows machine with shell access to run the “ipfs” commands and interact with your cluster


To deploy this solution, we assume that you have deployed a VPC with at least three public subnets in three different AZs. The default VPC in your region should work if there are at least three AZs in that region.

In this blog, we’ve deployed a dedicated VPC in the us-east-1 (Virginia) region following this best practice architecture. Use this quick link to deploy this VPC stack in your AWS account.

Important: To ensure your deployment doesn’t fail due to the following error The maximum number of rules per security group has been reached, make sure the limit is at least 120. If not, then please click this link to request a limit increase in your AWS Console.


Those two scripts will be used to configure and manage our IPFS Cluster.

AWS CDK stack

You can also deploy this stack using AWS CDK. With the AWS CDK stack, you can configure your architecture to use Standard Amazon EFS using different mount points instead of Amazon EFS One Zone. It’s also easier to customize and make your template dynamic.

See the project repository here (courtesy of Paul Lu).

AWS CloudFormation stack

Download the AWS CloudFormation template here.

Before creating a new stack, you need to generate some secrets to pass as environment variables to your cluster. Those secrets are required by the AWS CloudFormation stack:

  1. CLUSTER_ID and CLUSTER_PRIVATEKEY: The id and private key of the bootstrap node that will be referenced by other nodes. To generate both the id and private key, run the following command: ./ipfs-cluster-service -c /tmp/ipfs init to generate a json file in the temporary folder you specified (/tmp/ipfs in this example). In this file, you’ll find the id and private_key value you need. Copy both values and paste them in your AWS CloudFormation parameters. See this documentation for more information about cluster configuration.
  2. CLUSTER_SECRET: The ipfs-cluster-service command also generated a service.json file. At the top of the file, you’ll find a secret. Copy the secret and paste it in your AWS CloudFormation parameter. You can then delete the /tmp/ipfs folder as we won’t need it anymore.
  3. CLUSTER_RESTAPI_BASICAUTHCREDENTIALS: Login and password to secure your IPFS Cluster REST API using HTTP basic authentication. The format is login:password.Screenshot of Cluster-ID with fields to input variables

Before deploying, make sure of the following:

  • Your stack name is no longer than 18 characters. The name you give to your stack will be appended to all resources’ names created by AWS CloudFormation.
  • You selected the right VPC, Availability Zones, and matching Subnets in the stack’s parameters drop-downs.

After generating those secrets and checking your input parameters, you can now deploy the AWS CloudFormation stack. The deployment should take a few minutes.

After a successful deployment, you should see a new cluster in the Amazon ECS console, three new Amazon EFS filesystems, one new load balancer, and two new CloudFront distributions. New private DNS entries also appear in Route 53.

In the AWS CloudFormation stack’s Output tab in the console, you’ll see the two public AWS CloudFront DNS endpoints we created to access IPFS Gateway and IPFS Cluster REST API:

  • IPFS Gateway endpoint: Allows you to get IPFS files through HTTPS. In your browser, just append /ipfs/${CID} to the endpoint domain name to access any folders or files CID on the IPFS network.
  • IPFS Cluster REST API endpoint: Allows you to control your IPFS Cluster. You can pass this URL to the ipfs-cluster-ctl command to remotely control your cluster (see below).

Testing the cluster

We’ll remotely connect to our IPFS Cluster REST API to check the health of our IPFS and IPFS Cluster containers.

We use ipfs-cluster-ctl to interact with the IPFS Cluster REST API. The following command should return the list of IPFS Peers in your cluster.

$> ./ipfs-cluster-ctl -l /dns/${REST_API_DNS_ENDPOINT}/tcp/443 --secret ${CLUSTER_SECRET} --basic-auth ${CLUSTER_RESTAPI_BASICAUTHCREDENTIALS} peers ls


  • As we distribute traffic to three IPFS nodes with our ALB, each API call may connect to a different node.
  • We are using the port 443 to connect to our IPFS Cluster REST API AWS CloudFront endpoint and not the default port 9094. Behind AWS CloudFront, the traffic is forwarded to the port 9094 on the ALB and then to the port 9094 on the IPFS Cluster containers.

Adding files to your IPFS Cluster

To add files to our cluster, run the following command:

$> ./ipfs-cluster-ctl -l /dns/${REST_API_DNS_ENDPOINT}/tcp/443 --secret ${CLUSTER_SECRET} --basic-auth ${CLUSTER_RESTAPI_BASICAUTHCREDENTIALS} add ~/files/my_file.mp4

The file will get uploaded to IPFS and the content identifier (CID) of the new file should be displayed as follows:

added QmVPF6CBups2HY5qCkbGYCR5vdqTJ5Dk3UgfN3xxxxxXX my_file.mp4

Adding a file using IPFS Cluster API automatically pins your file and replicate it across all your nodes.

For more information about the IPFS Cluster REST API and how it manages upload and pinning, see here.

Accessing files from your IPFS Gateway

Now that your file has been added and pinned to your IPFS Cluster, you can access it through your own IPFS Gateway.

Copy the DNS endpoint of your IPFS Gateway located in the Outputs tab of your AWS CloudFormation stack and append /ipfs/${CID} to it. As the files are stored and pinned on your own cluster the response time should be very quick.

You can also access the file you uploaded through a public IPFS gateway like as follows:${CID}

This time it’s slower because needs to get the file from your IPFS cluster first before serving it through the gateway.

You can also access any public files or folders on the IPFS network through your own gateway. You can also pin existing public files on your cluster by using the ipfs-cluster-ctl pin add command.

Deep dive

High availability

The IPFS Cluster is highly available as each node is running in a different AZ. If a node were to fail and shutdown, then our ALB would notice it and stop sending traffic to this node. This is because we configured health-checks on the ALB to monitor both our IPFS gateway and our IPFS Cluster REST API endpoints. The overall service would remain available even if two AZs became unreachable.

If an IPFS node fails, then the Amazon ECS service associated with it would notice the problem and would start a new AWS Fargate task automatically to bring the cluster back to health. Both containers IPFS and IPFS Cluster are considered essential in Amazon ECS. If one container were to fail, the whole AWS Fargate task would fail.

We also perform health checks on the ipfs container by running a command every 30 seconds to make sure that the IPFS daemon is running and responsive. Amazon ECS would restart the task if the health check were to fail.

As the storage is decoupled from the containers thanks to Amazon EFS, no data is lost when a task fails. The Amazon ECS Service would start a new AWS Fargate task that would mount the existing Amazon EFS volume and restore access to all the metadata and files from the previous task.

Note: Multiple IPFS nodes cannot share the same Amazon EFS volume or it creates conflicts at the IPFS level. However, each node can be configured to use different mount points on the same EFS volume as illustrated in the CDK stack (see above).


Amazon ECS uses AWS Cloud Map to manage the mapping between AWS Fargate tasks IP addresses and their private domain names.

The node in the first AZ is the main IPFS boostrap node. The other two nodes have a custom container command that references our first node private DNS name. You can see the following command in the ipfs-cluster container configuration in the Amazon ECS task definition for the nodes in your last two AZs.


This DNS name is recorded in Route 53 and maintained by CloudMap automatically from Amazon ECS. If a node is restarted and get a new IP address, then the domain name is updated accordingly.

Note: The first node in our first AZ is our bootstrap node and doesn’t have a custom container command.


Beside the IPFS swarm port 4001, no other port is directly accessible from the internet.

Communication with IPFS Gateway or IPFS Cluster REST API can only be done through AWS CloudFront, which provides custom domain capabilities, secure communication over HTTPS, and caching at the edge (for IPFS Gateway).

As of today, Basic HTTP Authentication is the only authentication method supported by the IPFS Cluster REST API. Using Amazon CloudFront with HTTPS ensures that the credentials are encrypted in transit and allows us to remotely operate our cluster in a secure way.

Our secrets are stored in AWS Systems Manager Parameter Store and are safely injected as environment variables into the containers. The secret values will not appear in the Amazon ECS environment at all. However, in this example, they still show as input parameters of the AWS CloudFormation stack.

For production environments, you should manually pre-create the Simple System Manager (SSM) parameter store entries containing those secrets and reference them in your template. This way you don’t have to provide secrets as parameters to your AWS CloudFormation template.


Each container in each AWS Fargate task sends logs to separate Amazon CloudWatch log groups. The logs are directly accessible in Amazon CloudWatch or from the AWS ECS Console when you open from the Amazon ECS Service or AWS Fargate task.

Both IPFS logs and IPFS Cluster logs are available and can be used to observe the cluster behavior and troubleshoot.


It’s vital to know the health of your cluster. Here are some of the things to actively monitor:

  • Your Amazon ECS Cluster and AWS Fargate tasks – This is easily done using Amazon CloudWatch and Container Insights.
  • Your IPFS and IPFS Cluster container logs – Logs are in Amazon CloudWatch, and by using filters you can raise alarms if a specific message pattern appears.
  • Your Amazon EFS storage – Using the default Amazon CloudWatch metrics on Amazon EFS you can keep an eye on the throughput and storage used by each volume.
  • IPFS Cluster also provides monitoring tools you can run alongside your cluster. See the documentation.

Taking it further

Custom IPFS Config

To customize the IPFS config file you need to create your own Docker image from the official one to provide an init script to IPFS. You can store your new Docker image easily by using Amazon ECR and then update the Amazon ECS task definition to use your custom image instead of the default one for the ipfs container.

Create a Dockerfile file and edit it as follow. It will copy a script in the /container-init.d folder inside the ipfs container, which is executed by IPFS after the initialization phase and before the daemon starts.

FROM ipfs/kubo:latest 

COPY /container-init.d/

The IPFS config file is located in /data/ipfs/config in your ipfs container. You can make your script open and load the config file, edit it in memory and dump it back on disk. Or you could store your configuration file on S3 and download it from the script.

After the script execution the IPFS daemon will start and will use your updated config file.

Note: You can have multiple init scripts to perform different tasks before the IPFS daemon starts.

Private IPFS Cluster

You can create a private IPFS Cluster by setting the IPFS_SWARM_KEY env variable in the Amazon ECS task definition of your ipfs containers. This ensures that your IPFS nodes can only communicate with each other and not with the public IPFS network.

One of your nodes can be elected “bootstrap node” and be referenced by the other two nodes. To remove the default IPFS bootstrap list set by IPFS and add your own bootstrap node, you can follow this documentation.

To do this we also need a customized Docker image (see above). For this case, your init script will clean the default IPFS bootstrap list and add our own boostrap node instead.

Note: With a private IPFS Cluster you can only access files known to your cluster. Public files won’t be accessible.

Reduce compute cost by using Fargate SPOT

To reduce compute cost, you can use Fargate SPOT, which can offer up to 70% discount off the AWS Fargate price.

A possible architecture would be to keep the bootstrap node running on the standard AWS Fargate to guaranty high availability and run all other nodes on AWS Fargate SPOT. As we have an ALB in front of our IPFS Cluster, the load balancer detects when a SPOT task gets reclaimed by AWS and takes it out of rotation. A new SPOT task is automatically started by Amazon ECS and is added back to the ALB.

Reduce EFS storage cost

Amazon EFS One Zone has “Automatic backups” turned on by default. For safety you may want to keep automatic backup on only for one volume.

Amazon EFS Infrequent Access is another option to reduce storage cost up to 92%. Using Life Cycle Policies, Amazon EFS can move files to the Infrequent Access storage tier automatically after a file hasn’t been accessed for a given period of time.

As the IPFS Cluster replicates data across all three Amazon EFS volumes, both options are viable for most use cases and can reduce storage cost for large clusters.

For low traffic clusters, you can use the bursting throughput mode for your Amazon EFS file systems which cost much less than the elastic mode. It offers 12 hours per day of bursting capabilities but can slow down the cluster if there is sustained traffic. A solution to this limitation is to use the Amazon EFS Provisioned Throughput mode to guarantee a throughput baseline that will always be available to the filesystem. IPFS is quite chatty and produces a lot of IOPS. It will consume the bursting capacity if there is some activity on the cluster which may result in the cluster becoming unresponsive.

Use Amazon S3 as storage solution

To reduce your storage cost more and be able to sustain high traffic, you can store your IPFS files on Amazon S3 instead of Amazon EFS.

Using this plugin, you can configure your IPFS nodes to use Amazon S3 as storage layer. However, this requires you to build your own IPFS and IPFS Cluster Docker images (see above) and install all the dependencies so both containers have access to Amazon S3.

An example of Docker image using the S3 plugin is available in the GitHub repo.

When using the Amazon S3 plugin, we still make use of EFS but most of the traffic throughput will be shifted to Amazon S3. The number of GET requests to S3 will increase so your S3 cost will increase as well.

The upside of S3 is that it can provide large throughput, provide very affordable storage with multiple tiers, and can scale easily to acomodate even the largest clusters.

Secure IPFS Gateway with Lambda@edge or Amazon CloudFront functions

Right now, our IPFS Gateway is publicly available and can be accessed by anyone on the internet to get any files from the public IPFS network. This is acceptable for this demonstration, but you may want to restrict access to it.

To do that you can take a look at Lambda@edge to run some Basic Authentication logic on Amazon CloudFront directly. Or Amazon CloudFront Functions for a more lightweight approach.

There are many blog posts on Internet about Basic Authentication on Lambda@Edge. For a more advanced approach using AWS Cognito and JWT tokens, see the following blog post:

Gain containers Shell access

To debug your IPFS Cluster, you may want to log in directly into the containers and run some commands.

To do this, you can use Amazon ECS Exec and gain shell access into your running containers.

ECS Exec is activated by default in this stack. It can be used as follow to gain shell access. The --container parameter can be updated to access either the ipfs or ipfs-cluster:

$> aws ecs execute-command --cluster ipfs-cluster --task 3f4bfb3aefe24c8fa09558c59083xxxx --container ipfs --interactive --command "/bin/sh"

Custom domain and sub domain for IPFS Gateway

In order to support a custom domain or sub domain for your IPFS Gateway you need to perform multiple steps:

  • Have a domain name and a SSL certificate. You can use AWS Certificate Manager to create a new public certificate or import an existing one.
  • Create an Alias DNS record to point your domain and sub domain to your IPFS Gateway Cloudfront distribution. You can easily pick the distribution from a dropdown list if you use Amazon Route 53 as DNS service.
  • Go to your CloudFront distribution and add your domain and sub domain in the Alternate domain name (CNAME) section. In the Custom SSL certificate section select your SSL certificate.
  • Still in your Cloudfront distribution, under Cache key and origin requests, create a custom cache policy and configure it to pass the Host header to the origin. See this documentation for more information.
  • Go to the Load Balancer console, open your cluster’s load balancer and under the Listeners tab click on the HTTP:80 listener. Under the Rules tab, click Manage Rules. At the top click the + icon to add a new rule and click + Inset Rule
  • Click + Add Condition and Host Header from the dropdown to add this condition. As value enter your domain or sub domain name.
  • Click + Add Action and Forward to from the dropdown to add this action. As target select your ipfs-nodes-web target group.
  • Back to your load balancer, under the Attributes tab, click Edit and turn on Preserve host header under the Packet handling section.

Now your domain and sub domain contained in the Host header will be preserved and carried all the way down to your IPFS Gateway web servers running in your ipfs containers.

If you want to support IPFS subdomain Gateway for origin-based security, you must must create a sub domain like this * where the wildcard will be the Base32 encoded CID of the file. To make this work, you must also update the IPFS config file and add the following entry in the Gateway section:

"PublicGateways": {
   "": {
      "Paths": ["/ipfs", "/ipns"],
      "UseSubdomains": true

To update the config file you must create a custom Docker image and an init script that will update the config before the IPFS daemon starts. See the “Custom IPFS Config” section above.

Cleaning up

To remove all resources deployed in this blog, delete the AWS CloudFormation stack you created earlier. It will delete all AWS resources and all the files previously stored on the cluster.


In this post, we showed you how to deploy and run your own IPFS Cluster using IPFS and IPFS Cluster Docker containers. Our solution is serverless and highly available making it ideal for companies building web2 and web3 applications consuming content from IPFS.

IPFS is also an interesting approach to data replication over multiple Regions. We can imagine multiple clusters running in multiple Regions and being part of one big global IPFS Cluster.

The main advantage of this solution is that it’s fully serverless, which greatly reduces the operational work and operating cost needed to deploy and maintain it.

Nicolas Menciere

Nicolas Menciere

Nicolas is a Senior Startup Solution Architect based in New York. He helps high potential Web3 and FinTech startups succeed on AWS. A startup founder himself, he's been in the space for more than 15 years. Specializing in software development, security, and user experiences, he's now an active advocate of Web3 technologies.