AWS Machine Learning Blog

Reinventing the data experience: Use generative AI and modern data architecture to unlock insights

Implementing a modern data architecture provides a scalable method to integrate data from disparate sources. By organizing data by business domains instead of infrastructure, each domain can choose tools that suit their needs. Organizations can maximize the value of their modern data architecture with generative AI solutions while innovating continuously.

The natural language capabilities allow non-technical users to query data through conversational English rather than complex SQL. However, realizing the full benefits requires overcoming some challenges. The AI and language models must identify the appropriate data sources, generate effective SQL queries, and produce coherent responses with embedded results at scale. They also need a user interface for natural language questions.

Overall, implementing a modern data architecture and generative AI techniques with AWS is a promising approach for gleaning and disseminating key insights from diverse, expansive data at an enterprise scale. The latest offering for generative AI from AWS is Amazon Bedrock, which is a fully managed service and the easiest way to build and scale generative AI applications with foundation models. AWS also offers foundation models through Amazon SageMaker JumpStart as Amazon SageMaker endpoints. The combination of large language models (LLMs), including the ease of integration that Amazon Bedrock offers, and a scalable, domain-oriented data infrastructure positions this as an intelligent method of tapping into the abundant information held in various analytics databases and data lakes.

In the post, we showcase a scenario where a company has deployed a modern data architecture with data residing on multiple databases and APIs such as legal data on Amazon Simple Storage Service (Amazon S3), human resources on Amazon Relational Database Service (Amazon RDS), sales and marketing on Amazon Redshift, financial market data on a third-party data warehouse solution on Snowflake, and product data as an API. This implementation aims to enhance the productivity of the enterprise’s business analytics, product owners, and business domain experts. All this achieved through the use of generative AI in this domain mesh architecture, which enables the company to achieve its business objectives more efficiently. This solution has the option to include LLMs from JumpStart as a SageMaker endpoint as well as third-party models. We provide the enterprise users with a medium of asking fact-based questions without having an underlying knowledge of data channels, thereby abstracting the complexities of writing simple to complex SQL queries.

Solution overview

A modern data architecture on AWS applies artificial intelligence and natural language processing to query multiple analytics databases. By using services such as Amazon Redshift, Amazon RDS, Snowflake, Amazon Athena, and AWS Glue, it creates a scalable solution to integrate data from various sources. Using LangChain, a powerful library for working with LLMs, including foundation models from Amazon Bedrock and JumpStart in Amazon SageMaker Studio notebooks, a system is built where users can ask business questions in natural English and receive answers with data drawn from the relevant databases.

The following diagram illustrates the architecture.

The hybrid architecture uses multiple databases and LLMs, with foundation models from Amazon Bedrock and JumpStart for data source identification, SQL generation, and text generation with results.

The following diagram illustrates the specific workflow steps for our solution.

The steps are follows:

  1. A business user provides an English question prompt.
  2. An AWS Glue crawler is scheduled to run at frequent intervals to extract metadata from databases and create table definitions in the AWS Glue Data Catalog. The Data Catalog is input to Chain Sequence 1 (see the preceding diagram).
  3. LangChain, a tool to work with LLMs and prompts, is used in Studio notebooks. LangChain requires an LLM to be defined. As part of Chain Sequence 1, the prompt and Data Catalog metadata are passed to an LLM, hosted on a SageMaker endpoint, to identify the relevant database and table using LangChain.
  4. The prompt and identified database and table are passed to Chain Sequence 2.
  5. LangChain establishes a connection to the database and runs the SQL query to get the results.
  6. The results are passed to the LLM to generate an English answer with the data.
  7. The user receives an English answer to their prompt, querying data from different databases.

This following sections explain some of the key steps with associated code. To dive deeper into the solution and code for all steps shown here, refer to the GitHub repo. The following diagram shows the sequence of steps followed:


You can use any databases that are compatible with SQLAlchemy to generate responses from LLMs and LangChain. However, these databases must have their metadata registered with the AWS Glue Data Catalog. Additionally, you will need to have access to LLMs through either JumpStart or API keys.

Connect to databases using SQLAlchemy

LangChain uses SQLAlchemy to connect to SQL databases. We initialize LangChain’s SQLDatabase function by creating an engine and establishing a connection for each data source. The following is a sample of how to connect to an Amazon Aurora MySQL-Compatible Edition serverless database and include only the employees table:

#connect to AWS Aurora MySQL
cluster_arn = <cluster_arn>
secret_arn = <secret_arn>
  connect_args=dict(aurora_cluster_arn=cluster_arn, secret_arn=secret_arn))
dbrds = SQLDatabase(engine_rds, include_tables=['employees'])

Next, we build prompts used by Chain Sequence 1 to identify the database and the table name based on the user question.

Generate dynamic prompt templates

We use the AWS Glue Data Catalog, which is designed to store and manage metadata information, to identify the source of data for a user query and build prompts for Chain Sequence 1, as detailed in the following steps:

  1. We build a Data Catalog by crawling through the metadata of multiple data sources using the JDBC connection used in the demonstration.
  2. With the Boto3 library, we build a consolidated view of the Data Catalog from multiple data sources. The following is a sample on how to get the metadata of the employees table from the Data Catalog for the Aurora MySQL database:
 #retrieve metadata from glue data catalog
  glue_tables_rds = glue_client.get_tables(DatabaseName=<database_name>, MaxResults=1000)
    for table in glue_tables_rds['TableList']:
        for column in table['StorageDescriptor']['Columns']:

A consolidated Data Catalog has details on the data source, such as schema, table names, and column names. The following is a sample of the output of the consolidated Data Catalog:

  1. We pass the consolidated Data Catalog to the prompt template and define the prompts used by LangChain:
prompt_template = """
From the table below, find the database (in column database) which will contain the data (in corresponding column_names) to answer the question {query} \n
"""+glue_catalog +""" Give your answer as database == \n Also,give your answer as database.table =="""

Chain Sequence 1: Detect source metadata for the user query using LangChain and an LLM

We pass the prompt template generated in the previous step to the prompt, along with the user query to the LangChain model, to find the best data source to answer the question. LangChain uses the LLM model of our choice to detect source metadata.

Use the following code to use an LLM from JumpStart or third-party models:

#define your LLM model here
llm = <LLM>
#pass prompt template and user query to the prompt
PROMPT = PromptTemplate(template=prompt_template, input_variables=["query"])
# define llm chain
llm_chain = LLMChain(prompt=PROMPT, llm=llm)
#run the query and save to generated texts
generated_texts =

The generated text contains information such as the database and table names against which the user query is run. For example, for the user query “Name all employees with birth date this month,” generated_text has the information database == rdsmysql and database.table == rdsmysql.employees.

Next, we pass the details of the human resources domain, Aurora MySQL database, and employees table to Chain Sequence 2.

Chain Sequence 2: Retrieve responses from the data sources to answer the user query

Next, we run LangChain’s SQL database chain to convert text to SQL and implicitly run the generated SQL against the database to retrieve the database results in a simple readable language.

We start with defining a prompt template that instructs the LLM to generate SQL in a syntactically correct dialect and then run it against the database:

_DEFAULT_TEMPLATE = """Given an input question, first create a syntactically correct {dialect} query to run, then look at the results of the query and return the answer.
Only use the following tables:
If someone asks for the sales, they really mean the tickit.sales table.
Question: {input}"""
#define the prompt
PROMPT = PromptTemplate( input_variables=["input", "table_info", "dialect"], template=_DEFAULT_TEMPLATE)

Finally, we pass the LLM, database connection, and prompt to the SQL database chain and run the SQL query:

db_chain = SQLDatabaseChain.from_llm(llm, db, prompt=PROMPT)

For example, for the user query “Name all employees with birth date this month,” the answer is as follows:

Question: Name all employees with birth date this month

SELECT * FROM employees WHERE MONTH(birth_date) = MONTH(CURRENT_DATE());

User Response:
The employees with birthdays this month are:
Christian Koblick
Tzvetan Zielinski

Clean up

After you run the modern data architecture with generative AI, make sure to clean up any resources that won’t be utilized. Shut down and delete the databases used (Amazon Redshift, Amazon RDS, Snowflake). In addition, delete the data in Amazon S3 and stop any Studio notebook instances to not incur any further charges. If you used JumpStart to deploy an LLM as a SageMaker real-time endpoint, delete endpoint through either the SageMaker console or Studio.


In this post, we integrated a modern data architecture with generative AI and LLMs within SageMaker. This solution uses various text-to-text foundation models from JumpStart as well as third-party models. This hybrid approach identifies data sources, writes SQL queries, and generates responses with query results. It uses Amazon Redshift, Amazon RDS, Snowflake, and LLMs. To improve the solution, you could add more databases, a UI for English queries, prompt engineering, and data tools. This could become an intelligent, unified way to get insights from multiple data stores. To dive deeper into the solution and the code shown in this post, check out the GitHub repo . Also, refer to Amazon Bedrock for use cases on generative AI, foundation models, and large language models.


Example prompts

Domain Database/API Prompt SQL (Generated by LLM) Output
Sales & Marketing Amazon RedShift How many ticket sales are there? SELECT COUNT(*) AS total_sales
FROM tickit.sales;
There are 172,456 ticket sales.
Sales & Marketing Amazon RedShift What was the total commission for the ticket sales in the year 2008? SELECT SUM(commission) AS total_commission
FROM tickit.sales
WHERE EXTRACT(YEAR FROM saletime) = 2008
The total commission for ticket sales in the year 2008 was $16,614,814.65.
Legal S3 How many frauds happened in the year 2023? SELECT count(*)
FROM claims
WHERE extract(year from write_time) = 2023 AND fraud = 1;
There were 164 fraud claims in 2023.
Legal S3 How many policies were claimed this year? SELECT count(*)
FROM claims;
There were 5000 claims made this year.
Human Resources Amazon Aurora MySQL Name all employees with birth date this month SELECT * FROM employees
The employees with birthdays this month are:
Christian Koblick
Tzvetan Zielinski
Kazuhito Cappelletti
Yinghua Dredge
Human Resources Amazon Aurora MySQL How many employees were hired before 1990? SELECT COUNT(*) AS 'Number of employees hired before 1990'
FROM employees
WHERE hire_date < '1990-01-01'
29 employees were hired before 1990.
Finance and Investments Snowflake Which stock performed the best and the worst in May of 2013? SELECT name, MAX(close) AS max_close, MIN(close) AS min_close
FROM all_stocks_5yr
WHERE date BETWEEN '2013-05-01' AND '2013-05-31'
ORDER BY max_close DESC, min_close ASC
The stock that performed the best in May 2013 was AnySock1 (ASTOCK1) with a maximum closing price of $842.50. The stock that performed the worst was AnySock2 (ASTOCK2) with a minimum closing price of $3.22.
Finance and Investments Snowflake What is the average volume stocks traded in July of 2013? SELECT AVG(volume) AS average_volume
FROM all_stocks_5yr
WHERE date BETWEEN '2013-07-01' AND '2013-07-31'
The average volume of stocks traded in July 2013 was 4,374,177
Product – Weather API What is the weather like right now in New York City in degrees Fahrenheit?

About the Authors

Navneet Tuteja is a Data Specialist at Amazon Web Services. Before joining AWS, Navneet worked as a facilitator for organizations seeking to modernize their data architectures and implement comprehensive AI/ML solutions. She holds an engineering degree from Thapar University, as well as a master’s degree in statistics from Texas A&M University.

Sovik Kumar Nath is an AI/ML solution architect with AWS. He has extensive experience designing end-to-end machine learning and business analytics solutions in finance, operations, marketing, healthcare, supply chain management, and IoT. Sovik has published articles and holds a patent in ML model monitoring. He has double masters degrees from the University of South Florida, University of Fribourg, Switzerland, and a bachelors degree from the Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur. Outside of work, Sovik enjoys traveling, taking ferry rides, and watching movies.